آموزش عالی توده‌ای و چالش صندلی‌های خالی در ایران: یک مطالعه پدیدارشناسانه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

پژوهشگر، مرکز تحقیقات سیاست علمی کشور، تهران.

10.22034/jstp.2022.13923

چکیده

یکی از بازتاب‌های کلیدی جریان توده‌ای‌شدن آموزش عالی در ایران، شکل‌گیری پدیده صندلی‌های خالی یا ظرفیت‌های فاقد متقاضی است که نشان از کاهش ارزش تحصیلات دانشگاهی در جامعه ایرانی دارد. از این رو، پرسش مطالعه حاضر این است که چگونه توده‌ای شدن آموزش عالی در ایران منجر به شکل‌گیری پدیده صندلی خالی شد؟ برای این منظور از روش کیفی پدیدارشناسی استفاده شد. در این رویکرد، جامعه مشارکت‌کنندگان در مطالعه شامل مطلعین و صاحبنظران آموزش عالی بود که به صورت هدفمند با معیار برخورداری از تجارب زیسته و مطالعاتی مرجع و انتقادی در زمینه توده‌ای شدن آموزش عالی تعداد 14 مشارکت‌کننده انتخاب و نسبت به انجام مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختاریافته و تحلیل متن مصاحبه‌ها با روش تجزیه و تحلیل کیفی مارپیچی اقدام شد. با این روش، چهارچوب فهم‌پذیری چگونگی شکل‌گیری پدیده صندلی خالی در دوره آموزش عالی توده‌ای در ایران درک و ایجاد شد. این چارچوب نشان می‌دهد که چهار عامل کلیدی و مرتبط شامل، مداخلات ایدئولوژیک دولت در آموزش عالی، نظام مدیریت دانشگاهی علم گریز بهره بردار، فرایند‌های دانشگاهی تحول گریز، و جامعه محول و کیفیت خواه زمینه ساز شکست جریان توده‌ای شدن آموزش عالی در ایران و در برایند آن شکل گیری پدیده صندلی خالی شده است. این مطالعه می‌تواند به بازاندیشی جریان توده‌ای شدن آموزش عالی در ایران و در برایند آن مواجهه موثر با پدیده صندلی‌های خالی کمک نماید.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Massification of Higher Education and the Challenge of Vacant Seats in Iran: A Phenomenological Study

نویسنده [English]

  • Hamed Kamali
Researcher, National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP), Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

One of the key implications of the growing trend of higher education in Iran has been the devaluation of university education and its emergance as a phenomenon of vacant seats. Therefore, the question of this study is how the massification of higher education in Iran led to the formation of empty seats? For this purpose, the qualitative method of phenomenology was used. The community of participants in this approach included 14 higher education experts who were purposefully selected with the criterion of having lived experiences in the field of mass education of higher education and Semi-structured interviews and content analysis were performed using spiral qualitative analysis. In the context of this analysis, the framework of understanding how the phenomenon of vacant seats was formed during the mass higher education period in Iran was understood and created. This framework shows that the four key factors include the dominance of government interventionist thinking in higher education with different political, economic, justice-seeking logics, science-evasive academic management system, Academic processes incompatible with a changing social environment and a transformative quality-seeking society underlie the failure of mass education in Iran. This study can help to rethink the mass flow of higher education in Iran for Facing the phenomenon of empty seats.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Higher education
  • Massification of Higher Education
  • Excess admission capacity
  • Vacant seats
  • Student admission
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