یادگیری فناورانه و سیاست‌های حمایت از آن

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه مدیریت فناوری اطلاعات، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

چکیده

رشد و توسعه اقتصادی به میزان زیادی با رشد فناورانه بنگاه‌ها و صنایع هر کشور گره خورده به گونه‌ای که این دو مقوله در تعاملی دوسویه، ارتقاء جایگاه اقتصادی یک کشور را رقم می‌زنند. برای کشورها و بنگاه‌های دیرآمده، دستیابی به توسعه فناورانه، در بیشتر موارد از گذرگاه اولیه یادگیری فناورانه ممکن می‌شود و آنها از این طریق تلاش می‌کنند شکاف فناورانه و اقتصادی خود با مرزهای فناوری و پیشروان را کاهش دهند. این امر البته در سایه حمایت دولت و تدوین و اعمال سیاست‌های مناسب امکان‌پذیر می‌شود و از این رو، سیاست‌های دولتی نقش مهمی در چگونگی پیشروی یادگیری فناورانه ایفاء می‌کنند. در این مقاله، پس از تبیین مفهوم یادگیری فناورانه و اهمیت آن در کشورهای در حال توسعه و همچنین مفاهیم شکاف فناورانه و دیرآمدگان، تلاش شده سازوکار وقوع یادگیری فناورانه در بنگاه‌ها مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. پس از آن سبک‌ها، منابع، فرآیندها و مدل‌های یادگیری فناورانه ارائه و در ادامه اهمیت نقش مداخلات دولت در ارتقاء یادگیری فناورانه و همچنین مهم‌ترین سیاست‌های دولتی در این زمینه، مورد اشاره قرار می‌گیرد. مروری بر تجربه موفقیت‌آمیز یادگیری فناورانه در یکی از شرکت‌های ایرانی (گروه مپنا) و نقش سیاست‌های دولتی در حصول این موفقیت، خاتمه‌دهنده این مقاله خواهد بود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Technological Learning and Its Promotion Policies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sepehr Ghazinoory 1
  • Aida Mohajeri 2
1 Professor, Department of Information Technology Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D Candidate of S&T Policy Making, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Economic growth and development is highly tied to the technological development of the firms and industries of each country, thus determining the enhancement of the economic position in a mutual interaction. In most cases, achieving technological development for latecomer firms and countries, becomes possible through the primary pathway of technological learning, through which latecomers try to reduce their technological and economic gap with technological frontiers and pioneers. This becomes possible with the help of government’s support and formulating and implementing proper policies; Therefore government policies plays an important role in how technological learning progresses. Accordingly, after explaining the concept of technological learning and its importance in developing countries as well as the concepts of technological gap and latecomers, this paper investigates the mechanism by which the technological learning takes place in firms. Next, technological learning modes, resources, processes and models are explained. This section is followed by pointing out the importance of governmental interventions in technological learning improvement and also the most important government policies in this field. Finally, this paper concludes with reviewing the successful experience of technological learning in an Iranian company, i.e. the MAPNA Group, and investigating the role of government policies in this achievement.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Technological Learning
  • Government Policies
  • Technology transfer
  • Absorptive capacity
  • Technological Capability
  • MAPNA Group
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