آزادی آکادمیک: تحلیلی کیفی بر بازنمایی تجارب ذینفعان نهاد علم در ایران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت آموزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی. دانشگاه کردستان. سنندج.

2 استاد مدیریت آموزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی. دانشگاه کردستان. سنندج.

3 دانشیار مدیریت آموزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی و اجتماعی. دانشگاه کردستان. سنندج

10.22034/jstp.2021.14.2.1326

چکیده

این مقاله به دنبال شناخت درک تفسیری جامعه علمی (استادان و دانشجویان) ایران از آزادی آکادمیک بوده  و با استفاده از رویکرد کیفی از نوع پدیدارشناسی تفسیری انجام شده است. مشارکت‌کنندگان در پژوهش شامل 41 نفر از ذی‌نفعان جامعه دانشگاهی (22 عضو هیأت علمی و 19 دانشجوی تحصیلات تکمیلی) از سه دانشگاه تهران، علامه طباطبائی و کردستان بودند. نمونه‌گیری از نوع هدفمند و با بیشینه تنوع انجام شد. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌‌ها از  پروتکل مصاحبه نیمه‌ساختارمند استفاده شد و مصاحبه‌‌ها تا زمان رسیدن به اشباع نظری (از نوع اشباع مقوله‌‌ای) ادامه یافت. از رویه تحلیلی دیکلمن و همکاران برای تحلیل اطلاعات مصاحبه‌‌ها استفاده شد. برای اعتباربخشی یافته‌‌ها از ملاک‌های چهارگانه گوبا و لینکلن استفاده شد. داده‌‌ها با استفاده از کدگذاری نظری تحلیل شدند که 5  مضمون فراگیر:  آزادی در آموزش و پژوهش،  فقدان هژمونی عقیده،  آزادی بیان آکادمیک، استقلال دانشگاه و آزادی برای توانمندی و شکوفایی آکادمیک به عنوان درک جامعه دانشگاهی ایران از آزادی آکادمیک به‌دست آمد. مضامین فراگیر استخراج‌شده، بیشترین انطباق مفهومی/تاریخی و استعاری را با الگوی صنفی از آزادی آکادمیک داشتند. درک از آزادی آکادمیک در بین استادان بیشتر ناظر بر الگوی صنفی و در بین دانشجویان بیشتر ناظر بر الگوهای لیبرال و مدنی بود. درک استادان، بیشتر بر مفهوم‌‌سازی صنفی، شغلی و حرفه‌‌ای از آزادی آکادمیک محدود بوده است. دانشجویان در مقایسه با استادان به دلیل عدم وابستگی سازمانی به نهاد بروکراتیک و فقدان سرمایه‌های در معرضِ خطر، دیدگاه‌‌های انتقادی و لیبرال‌‌تری نسبت به آزادی آکادمیک داشتند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Academic Freedom: A Qualitative Analysis of Representing the Experiences of Science Stakeholders in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Manijeh Mohammadzadeh Mohammadzadeh 1
  • Naser Shirbagi 2
  • Keivan Bolandhematan 3
1 PhD Student in Educational Management, Department of Education Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
2 Professor of Educational Management, Department of Education Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran.
3 Associated Professor of Educational Management, Department of Education Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to identify the ideas and perceptions of an academic society (professors and students) of Iran from the concept of academic freedom. This is a qualitative study with phenomenographical strategy. Participants in the study were 41 people (22 faculty members and 19 graduate students) from three universities of Tehran, Allameh Tabatabai and Kurdistan. Purposeful sampling was performed with maximum variety. A semi-structured interview protocol was used to collect information, and the interviews continued until theoretical saturation was reached. Information was analyzed using theoretical coding that 5 descriptive notions: fundamental initiative, lack of hegemony of opinion and indoctrination, governance of academic voice, inter-arranged university and empowering professional space as the understanding of the Iranian academic community of academic freedom to was obtained. The identified descriptive notions have the most conceptual / historical and metaphorical conformity with the grid model of academic freedom. Understanding of academic freedom among professors is more concerned with the grid model and among students is more concerned with liberal and civic models. Professors' understanding is more limited to the professional, and grid conceptualization of academic freedom. Students have more critical and liberal views on academic freedom due to their lack of organizational affiliation with the bureaucratic institution and lack of venture capital.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Academic Freedom
  • university autonomy
  • Freedom of Thought
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