ارزیابی اثر سیاست‌های حمایتی بر گذار شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان به مرحله رشد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران

10.22034/jstp.2021.13879

چکیده

با توجه به اثرات مثبت اجتماعی و اقتصادی و به دلیل چالش‌‌های موجود در مسیر رشد شرکت‌های نوپای فناور ، دولت‌ها سیاست‌های متنوع حمایتی را در این حوزه دنبال می‌کنند. بنابراین، ارزیابی موفقیت این سیاست‌‌ها در بهبود پیامد‌های این بنگاه‌ها یک ضرورت است. در ایران نیز از سال 1391 سیاست‌هایی جهت حمایت از شرکت‌های نوپای فناور تحت عنوان شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان اجرا شده است. پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از داده‌های رسمی معاونت علمی و فناوری، اثر حمایت‌‌ها و این سیاست‌‌ها در افزایش احتمال رسیدن شرکت‌های نوپای فناور به مرحله رشد را ارزیابی می‌کند. نتایج تخمین مدل لاجیت نشان می‌دهد که معافیت‌های مالیاتی، وام‌های کم‌بهره و خدمات مشاوره‌ای احتمال گذار شرکت‌های نوپای فناور را افزایش می‌دهند. همچنین شرکت‌های دارای محصولات بسیار پیشرفته در مقابل محصولات کمتر پیشرفته احتمال گذار بالاتری به مرحله رشد دارند. علاوه‌‌براین نشان داده شده که شرکت‌های نوپای بخش «فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات» بیشترین و شرکت‌های بخش «فناوری‌های زیستی» کمترین احتمال گذار را داشته‌‌اند. تفاوت احتمال موفقیت در بخش‌‌های مختلف، لزوم اولویت‌‌دهی حمایت‌‌ها و توجه به سیاست‌‌های عمودی به جای سیاست‌‌های افقی را منعکس می‌‌سازد. حمایت‌‌هایی که بیشترین تأثیر را دارند باید در کنار بخش‌‌هایی که بیشترین اثرپذیری را دارند به صورت توأمان تحلیل شوند و انتخاب سیاست بهینه با در نظر گرفتن هر دو مؤلفه صورت ‌‌پذیرد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Evaluation of the Impact of Support Policies on the Transition of Knowledge-based Firms to the Growth Stage

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireaza Eshraghi
  • Seyed Iman Miremadi
  • Mohammad Vesal
Graduate School of Management and Economics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

New technology-based firms (NTBFs) are the driving force of innovation and technological progress and play a key role in job creation and economic growth.  Given the positive economic and social externalities and existing challenges in the growth path of these firms, governments engage in various support policies. Therefore, evaluating the success of these policies is very essential. In Iran, the Vice President for Science and Technology has implemented policies to support NTBFs since 2013. This study evaluates the effect of innovation policies on improving the probability that NTBFs transit to the growth stage, using official data. The results from a logit model confirm a positive impact from tax credits, low-interest loans, and counseling services on the probability of transition. Also, firms with high-technology products have a higher probability of achieving the growth stage compared to firms with medium-technology products. Finally, NTBFs working in the field of "information and communication technology" have the highest probability of success, while those in the "biotechnology" sector have the lowest probability. Differences in the growth probability in different sectors emphasize the importance of sectoral sectoral prioritization and vertical policies opposed to general and horizontal policies. Effective policies should be analyzed together with highly responsive sector in drafting optimal support policies.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • New Technology-Based Firms
  • Firm life cycle
  • innovation policy
  • Supportive policy
  • Policy evaluation
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