عوامل مؤثر بر شکل‌گیری خوشه‌های نوآوری؛ مطالعه ناحیه نوآوری شریف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی‌ارشد کارآفرینی، پارک علم و فناوری دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکده کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار دانشکده کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران

10.22034/jstp.2020.12.1.1119

چکیده

امروزه بر اهمیت شکل‌گیری فضاهای نوآوری به عنوان مدلی جدید در جغرافیای نوآوری کشورها تأکید می‌گردد. فضاهایی که از آنها با عناوینی چون قطب‌ها و ناحیه‌های نوآوری یاد می‌شود. این مقاله با تمرکز بر شناسایی هر چه بهتر فضاهای نوآوری به تشریح مفهوم خوشه نوآوری پرداخته است، یعنی پدیده‌ای جدید که سازوکار فضاهای نوآوری را بهتر توصیف می‌کند. هدف اصلی پژوهش، بررسی عوامل مؤثر بر شکل‌گیری خوشه‌های نوآوری در ایران است. پژوهش از روش کیفی با رویکرد نظریه داده‌بنیاد استفاده و با چهارده خبره آشنا با فضاهای نوآوری و بوم‌سازگان‌های نوآورانه، مصاحبه عمیق صورت گرفت که برخی از آنها مستقیماً در شکل‌گیری فضاهای نوآوری در کشور نقش اساسی داشته‌اند. یافته‌های مقاله نشان می‌دهد که عوامل شکل‌دهنده به یک خوشه نوآوری به دو دسته عوامل سخت و نرم تقسیم می‌شوند: عواملی که در شرایط علّی، مداخله‌ای و زمینه‌ای قابل طبقه‌بندی بوده و نتایج آنها منجر به شکل‌گیری بوم‌سازگانی پویا از بازیگرانی متنوع می‌شود که در فناوری‌های مختلف در مجاورت یکدیگر تمرکز یافته‌اند و مهم‌ترین عامل راهبردی بین آنها نیز ارتباطات و مشارکت‌های نوآورانه است. از دیگر یافته‌های این پژوهش می‌توان به نقش نهاد تسهیل‌گر شکل‌گیری و توسعه خوشه‌های نوآوری اشاره کرد که وظیفه راهبری بوم‌سازگان نوآورانه موجود در خوشه را بر عهده دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.20080840.1399.13.1.2.2

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effective Factors on the Formation of Innovation Clusters: The Case of Sharif Innovation District

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Jafar 1
  • Morteza Akbari 2
  • Ali Davari 3
1 Master of Entrepreneurship, Sharif Science & Technology Park, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Entrepreneurship, University of Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Today, the importance of shaping innovation area as a new model in the geography of innovation countries is emphasized. Areas are referred to as an innovation hubs and innovation districts. This research focusing on identifying innovation areas and describes the concept of “innovation clusters”. A new phenomenon which better describes the mechanism of innovation areas. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the formation of innovation clusters in Iran. The present study utilized a qualitative method with a grounded theory approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 experts familiar with innovative ecosystems, some of whom were directly involved in the formation of innovation area in the country. The results of this paper show that the shaping factors are divided into two categories: hard factors and soft factors. These factors could be classified under causal, intervention and contextual conditions and its results lead to the formation of a dynamic ecosystem of diverse actors focused on different technologies, and the most important strategic factor between them is innovative communication and partnerships. Other important results of this paper include the role of the facilitator in the formation and development of innovation clusters, which is responsible for managing the innovative ecosystem in the cluster.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Innovation
  • Clusters
  • Emergence of Clusters
  • Cluster of Innovation
  • Innovation District
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