نقش قانون برگزاری مناقصات در سیاست تدارکات دولتی حامی نوآوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیئت‌علمی، پژوهشکده مطالعات فناوری، تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد بین‌الملل، دانشگاه سمنان

3 کارشناس ارشد مهندسی مواد و متالورژی، دانشگاه تهران

10.22034/jstp.2019.11.3.1018

چکیده

به‌کارگیری خریدهای دولت و بخش عمومی به‌عنوان ابزاری برای تحریک فنناوری و نوآوری از مقطع پس از جنگ جهانی دوم به این‌سو،‌ به‌مرور بیشتر موردتوجه سیاست‌گذاران قرارگرفته ‌است. در کنار تحریک فناوری یا تحقیق و توسعه، یکی از رویکردهای مهم در سیاست‌های تدارکات دولتی حامی نوآوری،‌ به‌کارگیری سیاست‌هایی برای تحریک عمومی فناوری و نوآوری در کلیه خریدهای دولت و بخش عمومی است. مورد اخیر، محور مقاله حاضر برای مطالعه موردی در ایران قرارگرفته ‌است. بر این مبنا، بررسی زوایا و فرصت‌های قانون برگزاری مناقصات مصوب 1383 باهدف ارتقای تدارکات دولتی حامی نوآوری در ایران انجام شده‌ است. به دلیل ارتباط قوانین با یکدیگر، ‌در گام اول، نظام قوانین و مقررات مرتبط با برگزاری مناقصات در کشور شناسایی‌ شده و سپس چالش‌های شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان و فناور ایرانی برای افزایش سهم در بازار دولت به‌عنوان معیاری برای تحلیل ظرفیت مناقصات دولتی در ایران برای توسعه فناوری و نوآوری بررسی ‌شده‌ است. با پیگیری طرح تحقیق کیفی، رهنمود مصاحبه‌ها تدوین و پس از انجام مصاحبه‌های نیمه‌ساختاریافته،‌ تحلیل محتوای داده‌ها انجام‌ شده‌ است. در انتها نیز چارچوب سه سطحی متشکل از: اصلاحات بخشی در نظام قانونی برگزاری مناقصات،‌ ارتقای نظام‌های پشتیبان و برنامه‌های توسعه‌ای حمایتی پیشنهاد شده ‌است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Tender Act as Public Procurement for Innovation in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Meysam Narimani 1
  • Mohammadhossein Peyrovi 2
  • Mostafa Shalbafi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Technology Studies Inistitute (TSI), Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student of International Economics, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran
3 MSc of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Since the post-World War II era, the use of public procurement as a tool to stimulate technology and innovation has been increasingly targeted by policy makers. In addition to stimulating technology or research and development, one of the most important approaches in innovative public procurement is to apply policies to stimulate generic technology and innovation in public procurement. The present article focuses on the case study in Iran on the latter topic. On this basis, all dimensions and opportunities of the Tender Act approved in 2004, with the aim of promoting a innovation-oriented public procurement in Iran has been considered. in the first step, Due to the relationship of the laws to each other, the system of laws and regulations related to the holding of tenders in the country has been identified and the challenges of Iranian technology knowledge-based and innovatiove companies to increase market share in the market has been identified. Following the qualitative research approach, the interview guidelines were formulated and after semi-structured interviews were done, then data content analysis was so. In the end, As a result of the research, the proposed policies were developed at three levels, including reforming the legal framework, reforming and reinforcing support systems and developmental plans.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Innovation Oriented Public Procurement
  • Innovation & Technology Policy
  • Tender Act
  • Knowledge-based Companies
[1] Nelson, R. R. (1987). Appropriating the returns from industrial research and development. Brookings Paper-s on Economic Activity, 783-831.
[2] Obwegeser, N., & Muller, S. D. (2018). Innovation and public procurement: Terminology, concepts, and applications. Technovation, 1-17.
 [3] Edquist, C., Hommen, L., & Tsipouri, L. (2000). Public Technology Procurement and Innovation. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
[4] Rothwell, R., & Zegveld, W. (1981). Government regulations and innovation—industrial Innovation and Public Policy. In R. Rothwell, & W. Zegveld, Industrial Innovation and Public Policy (pp. 116-147). London.
[5] Edquist, C., Vonortas, N., Zabala, J.,Iturriagagoitai, J., & Edler, J. (2015). Public procurement for Innovation. Edward Elgar Publication.
[6] Rolfstam, M. (2012). Understanding Public Procurement of Innovation: Definitions, Innovation Types and Interaction Modes.
[7] Lember, V., Kattel, R., & Kalvet, T. (2014). Public Procurement, Innovation and Policy: International perspectives. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer - Verlag.
[8] Edler, J., & Georghiou, L. (2007). Public procurement and innovation–Resurrecting the demand side. Research Policy, 949-963.
[9] Kattel, R., & Lember, V. (2010). Public procurement as an industrial policy tool: an option for developing countries? Journal of public procurement, 368-404.
[10] Farnoodi, S., Ghazinoory, S., Radfar, R., & Tabatabaeian, H. (2017). Investigating the Growth Factors of Knowledge-based Firms in Iran with Approach to Explaining the Possible Paths. Journal of Science & Technology Policy, 9(2), 49-65. {In Persian}
 [11] Ebrahimi, S. N., Montazer, M., & Masoudi, F. (2014). Statutory Principles of Upstream Service Contract in  Iran’s Oil and Gas Industry.
 [12] Uyarra, E. (2016). the impact of public procurement of innovation. In Handbook of innovation policy impact (pp. 355-387). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar publishing.
[13] Evenett, S. J., & Hoekman, B. M. (2005). International Cooperation And The Reform Of Public Procurement Policies.
[14] Trionfetti, F. (2002). Discriminatory Public Procurement and International Trade. the World Economy, 57-79.
[15] Arrowsmith, S. (2003). Government Procurement in the WTO. Springer.
[16] Evenett, S. J. (2002). Multilateral Disciplines and Government Procurement. In Development, Trade and the WTO: A Handbook (pp. 417-427). Washington DC: The World Bank.
[17] Fenster, G. (2003). Multilateral talks on transparency in government procurement concerns for developing countries. IDS bulletin, 65-81.
[18] Rodric, D. (2007). One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth. Princeton, NJ and Oxford: Princeton University Press.
[19] Lin, J. &.‐J. (2009). Should Industrial Policy in Developing Countries Conform to Comparative Advantage or Defy it? A Debate Between Justin Lin and Ha‐Joon Chang. development policy review, 483-502.
[20] Fagerberg, j., & Verspagen, b. (2007). Innovation, growth and economic development: have the conditions for catch-up changed?
[21] Arthur, b. (1994). Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy. Michigan: the university of michigan press.
[22] Uyarra, E. e. (2014). Barriers to innovation through public procurement: A supplier perspective. Technovation, 631-645.
[23] McCrudden, C. (2004). Using public procurement to achieve social outcomes. the United Nations sustainable development journal, 257-267.
[24] Iossa, E., Biagi, F., & Valbonesi, P. (2017). Pre-commercial procurement, procurement of innovative solutions and innovation partnerships in the EU: rationale and strategy. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1-20.
[25] Overmeer, W., & Prakke, F. (1978). Government procurement policies and industrial innovation. Report for the six countries programme on government policies towards technological innovation in industries. Delft: Strategic Surveys TNO, Six Countries Programme Secretariat.
[26] Faucher, p. (1991). Public investment and the creation of manufacturing capacity in the power equipment industry in Brazil. the jornal of developing areas, 231-260.
[27] Connell, D. (2006). Secrets’ of the world’s largest seed capital fund: How the United States Government uses its. Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge Centre for Business Research.
[28] Wessner, C. (2008). An Assessment of the SBIR Program at the Department of Energy. Washington: The National Academies Press.
[29] Tassey, G. (1985). The technology policy experiment as a policy research tool. Research Policy, 39-52.