ره‌نگاشت: ابزار طراحی و اجرای سیاست‌های علم و فناوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری، سازمان پژوهش‌های علمی و صنعتی ایران، تهران

2 پژوهشگر بنیاد توسعه فردا، تهران

چکیده

به دلیل پیچیدگی و گستردگی مسائل اجتماعی و عدم قطعیت‌های پیش رو، سیاست‌گذاری علم، فناوری و نوآوری با چالش‌های اساسی مواجه است که برای مواجهه با آنها، ابزارهای متعددی توسعه یافته است. یکی از این ابزارها، ره‌نگاری است که ابتدا به عنوان یکی از ابزارهای برنامه‌ریزی، در سطح بنگاهی و سازمانی به ویژه در حوزه توسعه فناوری به کار گرفته شد اما پس از آن به دلیل ویژگی‌های ساختاری و فرآیندی آن که امکان توجه هم‌زمان به ابعاد و لایه‌های مختلف مسئله را در ساختاری زمان‌مند، مشارکتی و با نگاه به آینده فراهم می‌کند در حوزه‌های دیگر نیز گسترش یافت. ره‌نگاشت می‌تواند چالش‌های مربوط به پیچیدگی، عدم قطعیت و ابهام موجود در راهبرد و نوآوری را نشان دهد و امروزه با تقویت ویژگی‌های کل‌نگری (توجه به مسائل اجتماعی و بسترهای اجتماعی-فنی نوآوری‌ها و سیاست‌ها)، آیندهنگری (استفاده از سناریوهای مختلف در مواجهه با آینده‌های مختلف) و تقویت مشارکت آگاهانه ذینفعان، به ابزار توانمندی برای سیاست‌گذاری علم، فناوری و نوآوری تبدیل شده است. این مقاله، ضمن معرفی ره‌نگاشت شامل تاریخچه و مفاهیم، ساختار، فرآیندها، کارکردها و عوامل موفقیت و کاستی‌های آن به بیان رویکرد ره‌نگاری برای طراحی و اجرای سیاست‌های علم، فناوری و نوآوری و ملزومات مرتبط پرداخته و سپس شاخص‌های ارزیابی کارآمدی ره‌نگاشت‌های سیاستی ارائه شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Roadmapping: an Instrument for Formulating and Implementing STI Policies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fateme Sadat Rahmati 1
  • Maziar Attari 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate of Science and Technology Policy Making, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST),Tehran, Iran
2 Expert Researcher; BTF Institute, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

STI policies face many challenges in societies including ambiguities and uncertainties toward the future. To tackle with challenges, many instruments are developed. Roadmapping as one of these instruments initially is used as a planning tool at the firm level in technology development, but during the last years, national science, technology and innovation (STI) policy makers have become aware of the potential roadmapping offers for strategic technology and innovation management and begun applying it in the context of STI policy and priority setting in this context especially. Recently, to meet the need of STI policies, some of roadmap features have been strengthened, including: holistic (attention to social issues and the social context of innovations and policies), alternative futures (use of different scenarios toward different perspectives), and participation and active learning. In this way, it has become a powerful instrument of STI policy. This paper introduces the roadmapping concept history, structure, and processes, and designing and implementing the STI policies, and finally, lists the STI's performance indicators.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Roadmap
  • Roadmapping
  • Foresight
  • STI Policies
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