سیاست‌های هدایت سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی برای توسعه فناوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر پژوهشکده مطالعات فناوری، تهران

2 استادیار دانشکده مهندسی پیشرفت، دانشگاه علم‌وصنعت ایران، تهران

چکیده

سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی به عنوان یک ابزار کارآمد برای تأمین منابع مالی و انتقال فناوری شناخته شده و رقابت زیادی برای جذب شرکت‌های چندملیتی در کشورهای در حال توسعه ایجاد شده است. اما تجارب کشورهای در حال توسعه، نشانگر آن است که تأثیرات مثبت سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی (FDI) به صورت خودکار اتفاق نمی‌افتد و برای ارتقاء بهره‌وری و توسعه توانمندی‌های فناورانه داخلی، هماهنگی سیاست‌های FDI و سیاست توسعه صنعتی از طریق تعامل هدفمند مستمر و پرتراکم میان شرکت‌های چندملیتی و نظام‌های تولیدی و یادگیری نوآوری کشور میزبان ضروری است. در این مقاله ضمن بررسی سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی و تحولات اخیر آن، نظریات مهم FDI که توضیح می‌دهند چرا بنگاه‌ها دست به FDI می‌زنند مورد بحث قرار می‌گیرد. برخی رویکردهای نظری جدید بیان می‌دارد که سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی نه فقط به منظور بهره‌برداری از توانمندی‌های فناورانه در دیگر کشورها بلکه به عنوان یک ابزار مهم توسعه توانمندی‌های فناورانه شرکت‌های سرمایه‌گذار عمل می‌کند. لذا کشورهای در حال توسعه تلاش می‌کنند سهم بیشتری از این نوع FDI که پیوندهای وسیع‌تری با بازیگران نظام نوآوری آنها برقرار کنند را جذب نمایند. همچنین حمایت از بین‌المللی شدن شرکت‌ها ( و به بیان دیگر صدور سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی) در کنار سیاست‌های جذب FDI بیشتر مورد توجه کشورهای در حال توسعه قرار گرفته است. در انتها نیز یکی از نمونه‌های مهم FDI طی سال‌های اخیر در کشور (شرکت ایرانسل) از منظر سیاست‌های مرتبط با توسعه توانمندی‌های فناورانه از طریق سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Policies for Enhancing Foreign Direct Investment Toward Technology Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad Sadegh Saremi 1
  • Amir Zakery 2
1 Research Fellow, Technology Studies Institute, Tehran, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, School of Progress Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Foreign direct investment has been known as one of the most effective tools for financing and technology transfer and so there is a huge competition for attracting multinational companies among developing countries. However, the current situation indicates that the positive effects of FDI do not automatically occur. To enhance the productivity and development of domestic technology capabilities, FDI policies should be aligned with national industrial policies. A continuous and targeted engagement between multinational corporations and the manufacturing and learning systems of host country are essential.
In this paper, while exploring recent literature of FDI, main FDI theories that explain why it takes place are discussed. Some new theoretical approaches state that foreign investment not only serves the purpose of exploiting technological capabilities in other countries, but also serves as an important tool for developing the technological capabilities of foreign investors; so developing countries try to attract more share from this kind of FDI which sets wider linkages with their innovation system. Also, internationalization policies (Outward FDI) has recently received more attention from developing countries. Finally, one of the important recent cases of FDI in the country (Irancell Company) has been examined from the perspective of policies related to the development of technological capabilities by foreign investment.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • oreign Direct Investment
  • Technology Spillover
  • International Business
  • Technology policy
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