سیاست‏های حمایت از تحقیق‏ و‏ توسعه در بخش کسب‏ و‏کار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری مدیریت فناوری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران

2 استاد مجتمع دانشگاهی مدیریت و فناوری‏های نرم، دانشگاه صنعتی مالک اشتر، تهران

چکیده

برای اینکه شرکت‏ها به سرمایه‏گذاری در تحقیق‏و‏توسعه تشویق شوند یا موانع تحقیق‏و‏توسعه از پیش پای آنها برداشته شود، علاوه بر تقویت زیرساخت‏های قانونی توسط دولت‏ها، باید ابزارهای سیاستی مختلفی نیز در حوزه‌های مالی و غیرمالی (منابع انسانی، اطلاعاتی و تجهیزات) مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. هر یک از این سیاست‏ها مزایا و معایب خاص خود را دارند و کشورها بر اساس ویژگی‏های بخش کسب‏و‏کار خود مجموعه‏های مختلفی از سیاست‏ها را به کار می‏بندند. کاربست سیاست‏هایی نظیر مشوق‏های مالیاتی و کمک‏های بلاعوض همچنان متداول و فراگیر است لیکن برای گروه‏ها و فناوری‏های خاص، ابزارهای هدفمندتری جایگزین ابزارهای عام شده‏اند. وجه اشتراک مهم کشورها، تغییر تمرکز سیاست‏های تحقیق‌وتوسعه از چارچوب علم و فناوری به چارچوب نوآوری است. بر این اساس، حرکت از ابزارهای مالی به سمت ابزارهای غیرمالی مشاهده می‏شود و دامنه اقدامات جهت بهبود شرایط چارچوبی برای تحقیق‌وتوسعه (نظیر اصلاحات قانونی) گسترش یافته است. همچنین در سال‏های اخیر سیاست‏های تحریک تقاضا، حمایت‏های مالی غیرمستقیم و سیاست‏های مشارکت دولتی-خصوصی برای تحقیق‌وتوسعه بیشتر مورد توجه سیاست‌گذاران قرار گرفته‏‏اند. در عین حال، توجه به مشخصات و اثربخشی هر یک از سیاست‏ها بر شاخص‏های افزونگی ورودی و همچنین خروجی تحقیق‏وتوسعه برای انتخاب مناسب‏ترین گزینه‏ها ضروری است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Policies for Supporting R&D in the Business Sector

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Alizadeh 1
  • Manoucher Manteghi 2
1 Ph.D. of Technology Management, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, University Complex of Management and Soft Technology, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Various policy instruments including financial or non-financial ones (e.g. instruments for providing human capital, information or equipment) in addition to the reinforcement of legal framework are needed to remove impediments and encourage the businesses to invest on R&D. Each tool has its own advantages and disadvantages and the countries use different sets of instruments in terms of their business sector's characteristics. Using tax incentives and grants is still common and generic instruments have been more replaced by technology-targeted or population-targeted instruments. The focus of R&D policies is shifting from the science and technology framework to the innovation framework. As a result, there is a shift from financial instruments to non-financial ones. The policy measures for improving framework conditions (such as, legal reforms) in addition to the demand-side policies, indirect financial supports, and public-private partnerships are applied more. In parallel, paying attention to the instruments' impact on the input additionality and output additionality indices is necessary to choose the best alternatives.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Research and Development
  • Business Sector
  • Policy Instrument
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