سیاست‌های نظام مالکیت فکری با هدف توسعه نوآوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 اداره توسعه فناوری، انستیتو پاستور ایران، تهران

2 کانون پتنت ایران، تهران

چکیده

نظر به نقش پیشران دانش و فناوری در توسعه کشورها و کالای عمومی تلقی شدن دانش، بهر‌ه‌برداری اقتصادی از دانش و فناوری نیازمند صیانت‌پذیری آنها است. سیاست‌گذاری در خصوص این صیانت‌پذیری و شرایط آن حائز اهمیت بوده و در تنظیم این سیاست‌ها باید از یک سو تشویق به نوآوری در پدیدآورندگان و کارآفرینان، و از سوی دیگر تشویق جریان توسعه و انتشار دانش مورد توجه قرار گیرد. این سیاست‌ها بسته به وضعیت توسعه هر کشور متنوع و متفاوت هستند و از این رو هوشمندی دولت برای مداخله در نظام مالکیت فکری ضروری است. این مداخله هم در سطح اجزاء یعنی قوانین، سازمان‌ها و بازیگران و هم در سطح کارکردها است. در این مقاله پس از مقدمه‌ای مختصر، نقش دارایی‌های فکری در رشد اقتصادی و دامنه شمول و نقش هر کدام از شقوق دارایی‌های فکری ارائه خواهد شد. در ادامه، ضرورت مداخله دولت در سیاست‌گذاری و تنظیمات نهادی با توجه به رویکردهای مختلف از منظر نوع مداخله دولت بیان خواهد شد. سپس نظام مالکیت فکری به تفکیک ساختارها، قوانین و بازیگران آن تشریح و برخی راهبردهای مرتبط با زیرساخت مالکیت فکری ارائه و در پایان نیز وضعیت کشور در موارد پیش‌گفته به همراه دو مثال از حوزه‌های کاربردی و بااهمیت بررسی خواهد شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Policies of Intellectual Property System for Innovation Development

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mitra Aminlou 1
  • Marzieh Yaghoubi 2
1 Technology Development Office, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran
2 Iran Patent Office, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

According to the driven role of knowledge and technology in the development of countries and the public goods of knowledge, the economic exploitation of knowledge and technology requires their proprietary. Policy-making on protecting and its requirements is important and policy setting, on the one hand, encouraging innovation processes for creators and entrepreneurs, and, on the other, modifying these policies in such a way that the rete of development and dissemination of knowledge overshadowed the strong regulation. These policies vary depending on the development situation of each country. Therefore, government involvement in setting innovation policy in the intellectual property system is essential issue. This intervention will be at the level of the components, namely, regulations, Institution, organizations and actors, and at the level of functions. Therefore, in this chapter, after a brief introduction, the role of intellectual property in economic growth and the scope and the role of each intellectual property protection type will be presented. Then, the necessity of government intervention will be expressed in policy making and institutional norm settings, depending on the different approaches from the perspective of the type of government intervention. In continuous, the intellectual property system will be described in terms of its structures, laws and actors, and then some policies regarding to the intellectual property infrastructure will be presented. In the end, the status of Iran in the aforementioned points will be discussed along with two examples of areas of application and significance importance.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • intellectual property
  • innovation policy
  • Patent
  • Protection of Intellectual Property
[1] Mets, T., Kelli, A. (2013). The Impact of Intellectual Property Reward Regime on the Competitiveness of Innovative SMEs. The Scientific Journal of Riga Technical University: Economics and Business, 24, 99-104.

[2] WIPO. (2008). Outline of the National Intellectual Property Strategy (issued by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 25, 2008). Available at: https://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/cn/cn021en.pdf

[3] Li, Y. (2011). Intellectual Property and Innovation: A Case Study of High-Tech Industries in China. Or. Rev. Int'l L., 13, 263.

[4] Adoma, D. (2016). The Role of Intellectual Property Rights Protection in Stimulating Creativity and Innovation: The Case of Ghana. Available at: http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh/handle/123456789/27460

[5] Greenhalgh, C., & Rogers, M. (2010). Innovation, intellectual property, and economic growth. Princeton University Press.

[6] WIPO. DL450E - Intellectual Property Management: Module III, Innovation and IP Protection.

[7] Sadeghi, M., Rezaei, A., Shahbazi Nia, M. (2011). Legal Examination of the Ownership of Academic Works. Journal of Science and Technology Policy, 3(4), 41-57. {In Persian}.

[8] WIPO, W. (2004). WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Use. WIPO Publication, No. 489 (E).

[9] WIPO. (2001). What is Intellectual Property? Available at: www.wipo.int/.../en/.../450/wipo_pub_450

[10] World Intellectual Property Organization. (2006). Understanding copyright and related rights (No. 909). Wipo.

[11] WIPO. (2017). WIPO Making IP work. Available at: https://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/general/1060/wipo_pub_1060.pdf

[12] WIPO. (2013). Summaries of Conventions, Treaties and Agreements Administered. Available at: https://www.wipo.int/edocs/pubdocs/en/intproperty/442/wipo_pub_442.pdf

[13] UNCTAD. (2003). Dispute settlement, GATT 1994. https://unctad.org/en/Docs/edmmisc232add33_en.pdf

[14] Okada, Y., & Nagaoka, S. (2017). Global Spread of Pharmaceutical Patent Protection: Micro Evidence from the International Equivalents of Drug Patents in Japan. Millennial Asia, 8(1), 26-47.

[15] Papaioannou, T. (2006). Can Intellectual Property Rights be Morally Justified? The Case of Human Gene Patents. Working paper.

[16] Verspagen, B. (1999). Intellectual Property Rights in the World Economy. UNU-MERIT Research Memoranda, UNU-MERIT.

[17] Ghazinoory, S., Narimani, M., & Tatina, Sh. (2017). Neoclassical versus evolutionary economics in developing countries: convergence of policy implications. Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 27(3), 555-583.

[18] Pammolli, F., & Rossi, M. A. (2005). Intellectual property, technological regimes and market dynamics. Economia e Politica Industriale Paper, (2).

[19] Fromer, J. C. (2009). Patent Disclosure, 94 IOWA L. REV., 539, 548-51.

[20] Léger, A. (2007). The role (s) of intellectual property rights for innovation: a review of the empirical evidence and implications for developing countries (No. 707). DIW Discussion Papers.

[21] Correa, C. M. (2016). Intellectual property: how much room is left for industrial policy?. Journal of International Commerce, Economics and Policy, 7(02), 1650012.

[22] Maskus, K. E. (1998). The international regulation of intellectual property. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 134(2), 186-208.

[23] Shen, X. (2005). A dilemma for developing countries in intellectual property strategy? Lessons from a case study of software piracy and Microsoft in China. Science and Public Policy, 32(3), 187-198.

[24] Dutfield, G., & Suthersanen, U. (2008). Global intellectual property law. Edward Elgar Publishing.

[25] Granstrand, O. (2005). Chapter 10: Innovation and intellectual property rights. In: The Oxford handbook of innovation. Page 266.

[26] Commission on Intellectual Property Rights. (2002). Integrating Intellectual Property Rights and Development Policy: Report of the Commission on Intellectual Property Rights: London, September 2002. Commission on Intellectual Property Rights.

[27] Musungu, S. F., Oh, C., & World Health Organization. (2006). The use of flexibilities in TRIPS by developing countries: can they promote access to medicines?. Geneva: South Centre.

[28] Bagheri, S., Tavakol Moghaddam, M., Shavvalpour, S., Azizi Moradpour, H. (2010). Protection of Software Inventions in Iran. Science and Technology Policy, 3(2), 13-31. {In Persian}.

[29] Comino, S., Manenti, F. M., & Thumm, N. (2015). Intellectual property and innovation in information and communication technology (ICT). European Commission, JRC Science for Policy Report no. JRC97541.

[30] Liu, W. W. (2014). Evolution of intellectual property protection in post-Mao China: Law and enforcement. Ph.D Dissertation, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

[31] Madani, H., Shahhosseiny, M. H., & Khamse, A. (2011). Impact of Generic Plan on Development of Technology Capabilities. Hakim Health Sys Res, 14(1), 23-31. {In Persian}.