نقش سیاست‌های علم، فناوری و نوآوری در توسعه نظام‌های بخشی نوآوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری مدیریت فناوری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران

2 دانشیار، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران

چکیده

ریشه‌های مفهوم نظام‌های بخشی نوآوری به مطالعاتی بازمی‌گردد که حدود سه دهه پیش انتشار یافته‌اند، اما این مفهوم حدود دو دهه پیش به طور جدی معرفی و از آن زمان به بعد با روندی افزایشی در صنایع متنوع و در کشورهای توسعه‌یافته و در حال توسعه مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. هر نظام بخشی نوآوری متشکل از چهار مؤلفه کلیدی است که یکی از آنها نهادهای رسمی (سیاست‌ها، قوانین، مقررات و استانداردها) و غیررسمی (باورها، هنجارها و ارزش‌ها) است و بقیه عبارتند از پایه دانش و فناوری، بازیگران و شبکه‌ها، و تقاضا. مروری بر مطالعات پیشین در کشورهای توسعه‌یافته و در حال توسعه مؤید آن است که انواع سیاست‌های دولت به ویژه سیاست‌های علم، فناوری و نوآوری تأثیر چشم‌گیری بر شکل‌گیری و تکامل نظام‌های مختلف بخشی نوآوری دارند. بررسی‌های این مقاله نشان می‌دهد که بخش‌های مختلف نیازمند سیاست‌های متفاوت و متنوع هستند و سیاست‌هایی که در یک بخش اثرات مثبتی به جا می‌گذارند لزوماً در بخش‌های دیگر چنین اثراتی را به دنبال ندارند. در انتهای مقاله تأثیر سیاست‌های متنوع و پویای دولت بر شکل‌گیری و تکامل صنعت توربین‌های گازی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و مرور این تجربه بیانگر آن است که دولت در طول زمان از طریق اتخاذ سیاست‌های مختلف به شکل‌گیری و تکامل این بخش کمک بسیاری کرده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Science, Technology and Innovation Policies in the Development of Sectoral Systems of Innovation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Safdari Ranjbar 1
  • Soroush Ghazinoori 2
1 Ph.D in Technology Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The concept of sectoral systems of innovation is rooted in studies that have been published about three decades ago. But this concept has been seriously introduced about two decades ago and has been increasingly used in diverse industries in developed and developing countries since then. Each sectoral system of innovation consists of four key components, one of which is formal institution (policies, rules, regulations, and standards) and informal institution (beliefs, norms, and values). An overview of past studies in developed and developing countries suggests that a variety of government policies, especially science, technology and innovation policies, have a significant impact on the formation and evolution of different sectoral systems of innovation. This paper shows that different sectors require a variety of policies, and policies that have positive effects in one sector do not necessarily have such effects in other sectors. In addition, at the end of the paper, the impact of various government policies on the formation and development of gas turbine industry in Iran has been investigated. The review of this experience suggests that the government has contributed to the formation and development of this sector by adopting various policies over time.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sectoral System of Innovation
  • Science
  • Technology and innovation policies
  • Technological Catch-up
  • windows of opportunity
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