مرور تاریخچه مطالعات علم، فناوری و نوآوری و ضرورت ایفاء نقش دولت

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت‌علمی دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران

چکیده

نوشته حاضر مروری است تاریخی بر نحوه تحولات فکری در ارتباط با علم، فناوری و نوآوری و نقش آنها در رشد و توسعه. بدین منظور، روایت تاریخی ابتدا برخی متفکران پیشرو شامل آدام اسمیت، جان استیوارت میل، کارل مارکس و جوزف شومپیتر را به تصویر می‌کشد که چگونه در ارتباط با نظام جدید اقتصادی و نقش علم، فناوری و نوآوری در آنها می‌اندیشیده‌اند. جریانی که پس از جنگ جهانی دوم ایجاد گردید مبتنی بر نگاه شومپیتر به دنیای جدید و نقش نوآوری و تخریب خلاق شروع به تکمیل نظریه‌پردازی نمود. مقاله در ادامه تاریخچه توسعه فناوری در دنیا را با یک نگاه نئوشومپیتری باز می‌کند و به سراغ تطور نظریات از پس جنگ دوم جهانی می‌رود تا خلاصه فهم ما از این مقولات در دنیای جدید و نقش دولت در توسعه آنها را بازتر نماید. در ادامه، روایتی، هر چند کوتاه از وضعیت علم، فناوری و نوآوری در کشور برای دوره بعد از انقلاب ارائه می‌گردد که به صورتی نقادانه، خلاء شکل‌گیری تفکر و نظریه‌پردازی را گوشزد می‌کند.
 

 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Historical Review of Science, Technology and Innovation Studies and the Role of the State

نویسنده [English]

  • Ebrahim Souzanchi Kashani
Assitant Professor, Graduate School of Management and Economics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

 
The current monograph is a historical record of conceptual changes regarding the role of science, technology and innovation, particularly their role in growth and development. The story begins with pioneer scholars including Adam Smith, John Stewart Mill, Karl Marx and Joseph Schumpeter, the later who pave the way for the next generation of scholars after the Second World War thinking about the new economic system and the role of STI. The history of technical changes is then envisaged based on long waves of Schumpeter that completed by Freeman and Perez. Evolution of thoughts about the role of STI in development is described in the next part in order to show the role of state in this particular. Finally, a short summary of changes in Iran is discussed that demonstrates the weakness of theory building in the domestic system.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Science
  • Technology
  • Innovation
  • Economic System
  • the Role of State
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