آموزش عالی و اشتغال در دانشگاه پس از انقلاب اسلامی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جامعه‌شناسی فرهنگی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 استادیار جامعه‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

3 دکتری جامعهشناسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه مکمکستر، تورنتو، کانادا

10.22034/jstp.2019.11.1.2045

چکیده

گسترش کمی آموزش عالی در کشورمان و همچنین در دنیا که از آن تحت عنوان توده‌ای و جهانی‌شدن آموزش عالی نام‌برده می‌شود، ابهامات فراوان و مسائل جدی به همراه آورده است. یکی از این ابهامات را می‌توان این‌گونه مطرح نمود که اساساً چه منطقی می‌تواند توجیه‌کننده روند به‌شدت افزایشی آموزش عالی در کشورمان در مقایسه با روندهای جهانی و منطقه‌ای باشد. سؤالی که در این پژوهش با استفاده از روش تحلیل ثانویه و داده‌های سرشماری آمار و نفوس مسکن در ادوار بعد از انقلاب و در چارچوب نظریه‌ سرمایه‌ انسانی و نظریات مرتبط با آن همچون توانمندسازی فارغ‌التحصیلان دانشگاهی درزمینه‌ی شغلی و کارکردهای تولیدی آموزش، به آن پرداخته‌ایم. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان‌دهنده‌ این امر است که در نسبت میان روند افزایشی فارغ‌التحصیلان دانشگاهی و سرانه‌ اشتغال آنان، نمی‌توان از روند یکسانی در سال‌های مختلف بعد از انقلاب اسلامی و در میان دو جنس نام برد. به‌نحوی‌که در فاصله‌ 75-1365 نظریه‌ سرمایه انسانی می‌تواند تبیین‌کننده گسترش آموزش عالی در کشورمان باشد، اما در سال‌های بعد از 1375 این نظریه، به‌خصوص در مورد زنان، نمی‌تواند به پرسش چرایی گسترش آموزش عالی پاسخ قانع‌کننده‌ای بدهد و منطق عدم ارتباط گسترش آموزش عالی و اشتغال فارغ‌التحصیلان دانشگاهی در مورد زنان و مردان دانشگاهی متفاوت است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Higher education and employment in Post-Islamic revolution University

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Safari 1
  • Bahare Arvin 2
  • Kosar Karimipour 3
1 Ph.D. student, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Ph.D. of Sociology, Faculty of Humanities, McMaster University, Torento, Canada
چکیده [English]

The quantitative expansion of higher education in Iran as well as the rest of the world, often referred to as massification and globalization of higher education, has raised many questions. A serious issue worthy of examination is the rationale which justifies the rapid expansion of higher education in Iran compared to regional and global trends. This paper deals with this question. The data analyzed in this study with secondary analysis method is based on census statistics in post-revolution period. The data has been analyzed within the framework of human capital theory and the relevant theories, such as graduate employability and educational production functions. The findings show that the relationship between rising numbers of graduates and per capita graduate employment in post-revolution Iran do not follow a single trend. Our analysis shows that for the period between 1986-1996, human capital theory can explain the development of higher education in Iran. But for the years after 1996, this theory is not capable of providing a satisfactory answer to the question of higher education development, especially among women. Our analysis also shows that the rationale behind the irrelevancy between development of higher education and employment differs among males and females.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • human capital theory
  • expansion of higher education
  • employment of graduates
  • unemployment of graduates
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