الگوی عوامل مؤثر بر رشد پایدار شرکت‌های فناور نوپا در ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای سیاست گذاری علم و فناوری، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشیار دانشکده مهندسی صنایع دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه تهران پردیس البرز

چکیده

قانون حمایت از شرکت‌ها و مؤسسات دانش‌بنیان حدود یک دهه است که به تصویب مجلس شورای اسلامی رسیده و در حال حاضر بیش از 3000 شرکت دانش‌بنیان در کشور فعالیت می‌کنند که نزدیک به 50 درصد آنها، شرکت‌های نوپا هستند. هدف این پژوهش، شناسایی عوامل اثرگذار بر رشد پایدار شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان نوپا در ایران بوده که به روش مطالعه موردی چندنمونه‌ای انجام شده است. ابتدا با توجه به پیشینه و نظرات خبرگان این حوزه، الگویی اولیه با چهار بُعد و 14 عامل برای مطالعه طراحی و در ادامه، الگوی نظری پیشنهادی فوق‌الذکر برای چهار شرکت دانش‌بنیان متعلق به حوزه‌های فناوری اطلاعات، فناوری زیستی، تجهیزات پزشکی و تجهیزات اندازه‌گیری مورد بررسی واقع شد. برای مطالعه شرکت‌ها، از رویکرد سه‌گانه اطلاعاتی و اطلاعات حاصل از مستندات، شواهد و آمار و همچنین مصاحبه استفاده و داده‌های گردآوری‌شده از طریق پرسشنامه نیز موجب تقویت نتایج شد. در ادامه، تحلیل درون‌موردی و بین‌موردی بر روی شرکت‌ها انجام گرفت و عوامل موجود در الگوی نظری که دارای تکرار واقعی و تکرار نظری بودند شناسایی شدند. در نهایت هفت عامل، دارای تکرار نظری و هفت عامل نیز دارای تکرار واقعی شناخته شدند که هفت عامل دارای تکرار واقعی، با اطمینان بیشتری قابلیت تعمیم به سایر شرکت‌ها را داشته‌اند و از میان آنها، بُعد ویژگی‌های مؤسسان شرکت دارای بیشترین اثرگذاری است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Pattern of Effective Factors on the Stable Growth of New Technology-Based Firms in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Reza Naghizadeh 1
  • Jafar Heydari 2
  • Ali Mohammad Meysami 3
1 Tarbiat Modarres University
2 Department of Industrial Engineering University of Tehran Iran
3 PhD Student at University of Tehran Alborz Campus Karaj Iran
چکیده [English]

The law for supporting Knowledge-based companies have been approved more than a decade and today there are more than 3000 knowledge-based companies in Iran. More than 50 percent of that group are small firms. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effective factors for sustainable growth of small knowledge-based firms in Iran. We used multi-case study method. After investigating the related literature and interviewing some expertsin this field the basic pattern with 4 dimension and 14 factors was designed. The proposed pattern examined with 4 firms from information technology, bio technology, medical instruments and measurement instruments. To assess every firm, we use triangulation approach includes information from documents, evidences, statistics and interviews. In addition, the results of questionnaire filled some missed parts. The Cross-case analysis and Within-case analysis were done in selected cases and the differentiations and common points were analyzed by real and theoretical repetition. At last, we find that 7 factor have real repetition and 7 other ones have theoretical repetition. In this research founders specifics dimension has the most effects in stabilization of the firms.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • New Technology-Based Firms
  • Growth
  • Knowledge-based Companies
  • Case study
[1] Shankar, R., Singh, M. D., Gupta, A., & Narain, R. (2003). Strategic planning for knowledge management implementation in engineering firms. Work Study, 52(4), 190-200.

[2] Sveiby, K. E. (2001). A knowledge-based theory of the firm to guide in strategy formulation. Journal of intellectual capital, 2(4), 344-358.

[3] Clarke, T. (2001). The knowledge economy. Education+Training, 43(4/5), 189-196.

[4] Acs, Z. J., & Audretsch, D. B. (Eds.). (1990). The economics of small firms: A European challenge (pp. 1-22). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

[5] Radfar, R., & Khamse, A. (2008). Explanation of Research and Developments Networking Effect in the Values Improvement of SMEs. Journal of Roshd-e-Fanavari, 2(4), 2-12. {In Persian}.

[6] Feizpour, M. A., & Poushdouzbashi, H. (2009). The Role of High Growth SMEs in Job Creation; Evidence from Manufacturing Industry in Iran During The Second Development Plan. Iranian Journal of economic research, 37(12), 14-19. {In Persian}.

[7] Lacetera, N. (2005). Multiple missions and academic entrepreneurship. Roundtable for Engineering Entrepreneurship Research.

[8] Spilling, O. R. (2004, June). Commercialization of knowledge–conceptual framework. In 13th Nordic Conference on Small Business (NCSB) Research.

[9] McCline, R. L., Bhat, S., & Baj, P. (2000). Opportunity recognition: An exploratory investigation of a component of the entrepreneurial process in the context of the health care industry. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25(2), 81-94.

[10] Gerber, M. A. (1999). The myth revisted: why most small businesses don't work and what to do about it. Translated by Aslami Arani. Avazeh publication. pp 113-115. {In Persian}.

[11] Desouza, K. C., & Awazu, Y. (2006). Knowledge management at SMEs: five peculiarities. Journal of knowledge management, 10(1), 32-43.

[12] Barringer, B. R., Jones, F. F., & Neubaum, D. O. (2005). A quantitative content analysis of the characteristics of rapid-growth firms and their founders. Journal of business venturing, 20(5), 663-687.

[13] Feyz, D., Nemati, M. A., Jebeli Javan, A., & Zangian, S. (2014). Impact of marketing capability on functional impacts of SME's; the case study of Tehran Hamburger Company. Journal of Innovation and Enterpreneurship, 1, 22-30. {In Persian}.

[14] Van Praag, C. M., & Versloot, P. H. (2007). What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research. Small business economics, 29(4), 351-382.

[15] Colombo, M. G., & Grilli, L. (2005). Founders’ human capital and the growth of new technology-based firms: A competence-based view. Research policy, 34(6), 795-816.

[16] Ng, P. Y., & Hamilton, R. T. (2016). Experiences of high-growth technology firms in Malaysia and New Zealand. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 28(8), 901-915.

[17] Wright, M., Roper, S., Hart, M., & Carter, S. (2015). Joining the dots: Building the evidence base for SME growth policy. International Small Business Journal, 33(1), 3-11.

[18] Rannikko, H. (2012). Early development of new technology-based firms: a longitudinal analysis on new technology-based firms’ development from population level and firm level perspectives. Hanken School of Economics.

[19] Kamuriwo, D. S., Baden-Fuller, C., & Zhang, J. (2017). Knowledge Development Approaches and Breakthrough Innovations in Technology-Based New Firms. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 34(4), 492-508.

[20] Chorev, S., & Anderson, A. R. (2006). Success in Israeli high-tech start-ups; Critical factors and process. Technovation, 26(2), 162-174.

[21] Almus, M., & Nerlinger, E. A. (1999). Growth of new technology-based firms: which factors matter?. Small business economics, 13(2), 141-154.

[22] Storey, D. J., & Tether, B. S. (1998). New technology-based firms in the European Union: an introduction. Research policy, 26(9), 933-946.

[23] Wagner, J. (1992). Firm size, firm growth, and persistence of chance: Testing GIBRAT's law with establishment data from Lower Saxony, 1978–1989. Small Business Economics, 4(2), 125-131.

[24] Löfsten, H. (2016). New technology-based firms and their survival: The importance of business networks, and entrepreneurial business behaviour and competition. Local Economy, 31(3), 393-409.

[25] Miozzo, M., & DiVito, L. (2016). Growing fast or slow?: Understanding the variety of paths and the speed of early growth of entrepreneurial science-based firms. Research Policy, 45(5), 964-986.

[26] Rowen, H. S., & Toyoda, M. A. (2002). From Keiretsu to Startups: Japan's Push for High Tech Entrepreneurship. Asia/Pacific Research Center, Stanford University.

[27] Hoxha, D. (2008). Entrepreneurship, employment and fast-growing firms in Kosova. World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 4(2-3), 203-217.

[28] Davidsson, P., Kirchhoff, B., Hatemi-J, A., & Gustavsson, H. (2000, June). Factors underlying business growth in Sweden. In ICSB World Conference, June (pp. 7-10).

[29] Scholten, V. E. (2006). The early growth of academic spin-offs: [factors influencing the early growth of Dutch spin-offs in the life sciences, ICT and consulting]. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University and Research centrum, the Netherlands.

[30] O’Shea, R. P., Chugh, H., & Allen, T. J. (2008). Determinants and consequences of university spinoff activity: a conceptual framework. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 33(6), 653-666.

[31] Yin, R. K. (2003). Case Study Research, Designand Methods. Sage Publications.

[32] Yin, R. K. (2012). Applications of Case StudyResearch. Sage Publications.

[33] Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of management review, 14(4), 532-550.

[34] Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., Huberman, M. A., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage.

[35] Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2006). Designing qualitative research. California: Sage.

[36] Naghizadeh, R. (2017). The Pattern of Cooperation Between Small Knowledge-Based Firms and Industrial and Economic Firms; by Guaranteed-Buys Method. Journal of Science & Technology Policy, 9(2), 67-81. {In Persian}.

[37] Naghizadeh, R., Elahi, S., & Manteghi, M. (2016). The frameworkoftechnologicalinnovation developmentinthe regions of Iran; the case study of Bio, Nano, Aero and Information & communication technology. Journal of Science and Technology Policy, 8(1), 43-59. {In Persian}.

[38] Naghizadeh, R., Elahi, S., Manteghi, M., Ghazinoory, S., & Ranga, M. (2015). Through the magnifying glass: an analysis of regional innovation models based on co-word and meta-synthesis methods. Quality & Quantity, 49(6), 2481-2505.

[39] Khayatian Yazdi, M. S., Elyasi, M., & Tabatabaeeian, H. (2016). The Model for Sustainability of Knowledge-based Firms in Iran. Journal of Science and Technology Policy, 8(2), 49-62. {In Persian}.