یک تحلیل کارکردی-ساختاری از سیاست‌‌های بین المللی‌سازی شرکت‌‌های دانش بنیان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکترای مدیریت فناوری، واحد علوم و تحقیقات دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران.

2 دانشیار گروه مدیریت فناوری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران.

3 استادیار گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم وتحقیقات، تهران

4 دانشیار گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم وتحقیقات، تهران.

10.22034/jstp.2021.14.3.1382

چکیده

در مطالعات تجارت بین‌‌الملل با در نظر داشتن محدودیت‌‌های شرکت‌‌های کوچک‌‌ و متوسط برای ورود به فرآیندهای بین‌‌المللی، بر ضرورت حمایت دولت از بین‌‌المللی‌‌سازی این شرکت‌‌ها تأکید می‌‌شود. هدف این مقاله، آسیب‌‌شناسی سیاست‌‌های اتخاذشده برای حمایت از بین‌المللی شرکت‌‌های دانش‌‌بنیان در ایران است؛ به این منظور، کاستی‌‌های ساختاری برنامه‌‌های موجود و محدودیت‌‌های برنامه‌‌ها در تحقق کارکردهای سیاست بین‌‌المللی‌‌سازی مورد بررسی قرار گرفته است. منظور از کارکردهای سیاست بین‌‌المللی‌‌سازی، فرآیندهایی است که باید برای حمایت از بین‌‌المللی‌‌سازی کسب‌‌وکار توسط سیاست‌‌ها پشتیبانی و اجرا شوند. کارکردهای مورداستفاده در چارچوب تحلیلی این پژوهش با بررسی تجربه بین‌‌المللی‌‌سازی کسب‌‌وکار در کشورهای مختلف شناسایی شده که عبارت‌اند از: تأمین اطلاعات؛ هماهنگ‌‌سازی اقدامات؛ ارتقای نیروی انسانی؛ شبکه‌‌سازی بین‌‌المللی؛ تسهیل تجارت؛ تأمین مالی و کاهش ریسک تجارت؛ توسعه زیرساخت تجارت بین‌الملل؛ و حمایت‌‌های اختصاصی از کسب‌‌وکارها. در گام بعد، برنامه‌های حمایت از بین‌المللی‌‌سازی کسب‌وکار دانش‌بنیان در ایران از یک طرف به تفکیک کارکردها و از طرف دیگر مبتنی بر مؤلفه‌‌های ساختاری مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که سیاست‌‌های بین‌‌المللی‌‌سازی مورد مطالعه، به مرور اختصاصی‌‌تر و با مشارکت بالاتر بخش خصوصی طراحی و اجرا شده‌‌اند. اما موانعی مثل ضعف در هماهنگی بین‌بخشی، محدودیت در دسترسی به زیرساخت‌‌های بین‌‌المللی تجارت و ساختارهای ناکارآمد در طراحی و اجرا، اثربخشی این سیاست‌‌ها را با محدودیت روبرو کرده‌است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.20080840.1400.14.3.4.5

عنوان مقاله [English]

A Functional-Structural Analysis of Policies for the Internationalization of Knowledge-based Companies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmadreza Alaei Tababaee 1
  • Mehdi Elyasi 2
  • Hesam Zandhesami 3
  • Taghi Torabi 4
1 PhD in Technology Management, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Management and Accounting Faculty, Allameh Tabatabaei University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Management and Economy Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Management and Economy Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

International trade studies, given the limitations of small and medium-sized enterprises to enter international processes, emphasize the need for government support for the internationalization of these firms. The purpose of this article is the pathology of policies adopted to support the internationalization of knowledge-based companies in Iran; To this end, the structural shortcomings of the existing programs and their limitations in addresing the functions of internationalization policy have been examined. The functions of internationalization policy are the processes that must be implemented by policies to support the internationalization of business. The functions used in the analytical framework of this research are identified by reviewing the internationalization experience of business in different countries. The identified functions of internationalization policy are “Providing information, Coordination of initiatives, Human resource development, International networking, Trade facilitation, Funding & reducing business risks, Development of international trade infrastructures, and Special business support”. Thereupon, the internationalization support measures in Iran high-tech sector were analyzed based on function, implementation time, and the executive body of each measure. The results of this study show that internationalization policies over time have been designed and implemented more specifically and with higher participation of the private sector. However, obstacles such as poor cross-sectoral coordination, limited access to international trade infrastructure, and inefficient structures in design and implementation have limited the effectiveness of these policies.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Internationalization policy
  • Small and medium-sized enterprise
  • Policy analysis
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