تحلیل ابزارهای سیاستی همکاری فناورانه سه شرکت بزرگ با شرکت‌های کوچک فناور

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشکده مطالعات بنیادین علم و فناوری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت صنعتی، دانشکده علوم اقتصادی و اداری، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر

3 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت تکنولوژی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

10.22034/jstp.2021.14.3.1272

چکیده

به‌‌کارگیری مناسب ابزارهای سیاستی نقش کلیدی در موفقیت همکاری‌‌های فناورانه بین شرکت‌‌ها دارد. پژوهش حاضر با روش مطالعه موردی، به بررسی 13 همکاری‌‌ فناورانه 3 شرکت‌‌ بزرگ با 13 شرکت کوچک فناور ایرانی در بازه زمانی 10 ساله (1385-1395) در حوزه فناوری‌‌های نانو، زیستی و اطلاعات و ارتباطات (فاوا) پرداخته است. در مجموع با انجام 27 مصاحبه نیمه‌‌ساختاریافته با افراد درگیر در این همکاری‌‌ها در طرفین همکاری و تحلیل محتوای کیفی آن‌ها با کدگذاری محوری، ابزارهای سیاستی مورد استفاده در همکاری‌‌های مورد مطالعه شناسایی شده است. نتایج نشان می‌دهد حمایت‌‌های مالی در قالب ارائه وام و یارانه از پرکاربردترین ابزارهای سیاستی در همکاری‌‌های هر 3 حوزه فناوری‌‌ نانو، زیستی و فاوا می‌باشد. به علاوه، ابزارهای سیاستی مورد استفاده در همکاری‌‌های حوزه فاوا محدود به ابزارهای ایجاد انحصار در تولید و ارائه وام‌‌هایی از جانب نهادهای حمایتی مربوطه بوده است. در مقابل، در همکاری‌‌های فناوری حوزه نانو و زیستی طیف متنوعی از ابزارها نظیر خریدهای تضمینی، ارائه حمایت‌‌های مالی، میانجی‌‌گری، مشوق‌‌های صادراتی و اعمال تعرفه بر واردات مورد استفاده قرار گرفته‌‌اند. شناسایی ابزارهای سیاستی مشوق همکاری‌‌های فناورانه شرکت‌های بزرگ و کوچک و نیز کاربرد آن‌ها، به سیاست‌‌گذاران در راستای حمایت فعال‌تر و اثربخش‌تر از همکاری‌‌های فناورانه کمک شایانی می‌نماید.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing Policy Instruments Used in Technological Collaboration of 3 Large Firms with Small Technology-based Firms

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kiarash Fartash 1
  • Mostafa Mohseni Kiasari 2
  • Elnaz Mesma Khosroshahi 3
1 Assistant Professor, Institute for Science and Technology Studies, Shahid Beheshti University.
2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, University of Mazandaran.
3 Msc in Technology Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti University.
چکیده [English]

To facilitate the success of technological collaboration between companies, the use of policy tools plays a key role in encouraging collaboration between the parties. In this study, using case study method, technological collaborations over a period of 10 years (2006 to 2016) between 3 large and 13 small technology-based firm in the field of nanotechnology, biotechnology and information and communication (ICT) in Iran have been studied. In total, by conducting 27 semi-structured interviews with the people involved in these collaborations and analyzing the data by content analysis with axial coding, the policy tools used in the studied collaborations have been identified. The present study was conducted in the period of autumn 2016 to winter 2017 and the results show that financial support in the form of loans and subsidies is one of the most widely used policy tools in all three fields of nanotechnology, biotechnology and ICT fields. In addition, the policy tools used in ICT collaborations have been limited to the monopoly production and loans from relevant support institutions. In contrast, a variety of tools such as guaranteed purchases, financial supports, intermediation, export incentives and import tariffs have been used in nanothechnology and biotechnology collaborations. Identifying policy tools and their applications in collaborations between large and small companies will help policymakers to support technological collaborations more active and more effective.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Technological Collaboration
  • Small technology-based firm
  • Policy tools
  • Large firms
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