توسعه کنام‌ فناورانه فتوولتائیک در ایران با رویکرد مدیریت راهبردی کنام

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشکده مطالعات بنیادین علم و فناوری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 کارشناسی‌ارشد مدیریت فناوری، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

چکیده

اتخاذ سیاست‌های مناسب برای توسعه فناوری‌های انرژی‌ تجدیدپذیر، نیازمند شناسایی و تبیین درست تغییرات فناورانه است. از طرفی، توسعه فناوری‌های انرژی تجدیدپذیر در هر کشور بر اساس شرایط بومی آن کشور الزامات مختلفی داشته و به طیفی از عوامل اجتماعی و فنی وابسته است. پژوهش حاضر با رویکرد مدیریت راهبردی کنام و در قالب مطالعات موردی تاریخی و با روش تحقیق کیفی به تحلیل توسعه فناوری فتوولتائیک از منظر انتظارات، شبکه‌ها و یادگیری می‌پردازد. قلمرو زمانی بررسی، سال‌های 1370 تا 1398 و قلمرو مکانی، حوزه انرژی خورشیدی در ایران است. ابزار اصلی گردآوری داده‌‌ها، مصاحبه‌های نیمه‌ساختاریافته و داده‌های ثانویه موجود و روش تحلیل داده‌ها نیز تحلیل محتوا و استفاده از کدگذاری محوری بوده است. جامعه آماری مصاحبه، خبرگان دارای تجربه و تخصص در زمینه انرژی‌ خورشیدی در ایران بوده که 20 نفر از افراد با ویژگی‌ یادشده به روش گلوله برفی انتخاب و مورد مصاحبه قرار گرفته‌اند. با بررسی تعاملات بین فرآیندهای کنام نشان داده شده که اگر چه شبکه بازیگران در ابتدای دهه 1370 بسیار اندک بوده اما با گذشت زمان و وضع قوانین و برخی سیاست‌های حمایتی همچون خرید تضمینی برق تجدیدپذیر و حمایت از توسعه فناوری‌های انرژی‌ تجدیدپذیر، انتظارات بازیگران درباره کنام فتوولتائیک رشد کرده و در نهایت منتهی به رشد شبکه بازیگران آموزشی و دانشی در اواسط دهه 1380 و رشد شبکه بازیگران تولیدی و خدماتی طی دهه 1390 شده است. همچنین تأثیر رویدادهای مهمی همچون توافق برجام و سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی بر توسعه انتظارات و شبکه بازیگران فتوولتائیک ایران تشریح شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Photovoltaic Technological Niche Development in Iran with Strategic Niche Management Perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Sadegh Khayyatian Yazdi 1
  • Kiarash Fartash 1
  • Amir Ghorbani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Institute for Science and Technology Studies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 MSc in Technology Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

identification and explanation of the technological change. On the other hand, the development of renewable energy technologies in each country according to its native conditions has different requirements and depends on a range of social and technical factors. The present study analyzes the development of photovoltaic technology from the perspective of expectations, networks, and learning, with the approach of strategic niche management and in the form of historical case studies and qualitative research methods. Data gathering tools are semi-structured interviews and secondary data and the method of data analysis is through content analysis and axial coding. The statistical population for the expert interview is experienced in solar energy in Iran and 20 experts have been selected and interviewed by the snowball technique. Its temporal territory is between 1991 and 2019, and its spatial territory is Iran. Examining the Interaction between niche processes, it was shown that although the network of actors was weaknesses in the early 1991s, with over time and the Enforcement of supportive laws and policies such as feed-in tariff and support for the development of renewable energy technologies, it has finally led to the growth of the network of educational and knowledgeable actors in the mid-2000s and the growth of the network of production and service actors in the 2010s. The impact of important events such as JCPOA and foreign investment on the development of expectations and the network of photovoltaic actors has also been described.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Niche Development
  • Technological Niche
  • Solar Energy
  • Photovoltaic
  • Strategic Niche Management
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