یادگیری الکترونیکی: روایت دگردیسی فناورانه در عرصه آموزش

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد فناوری اطلاعات، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی فناوری اطلاعات، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

چکیده

امروزه تمامی جنبه‌های زندگی انسان از رشد فناوری‌های اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی اثر پذیرفته است. آموزش و یادگیری نیز در زمره حوزه‌هایی است که به شدت تحت تأثیر فاوا و سرعت رشد آن بوده که این تأثیرپذیری منجر به شکل‌گیری مفهومی جدید به نام «یادگیری الکترونیکی» شده است. در این مقاله ابتدا مفاهیم پایه‌ای یادگیری تعریف و پس از آن، با توصیف سیر تطور فناورانه حوزه آموزش از دور، پیشینه فناورانه یادگیری الکترونیکی تشریح می‌شود و چگونگی تأثیر فناوری‌های اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی بر شکل‌گیری یادگیری هوشمند شخصی شده بیان می‌گردد. این تحولات را می‌توان در قالب شش نسل تقسیم‌بندی کرد: آموزش مکاتبه‌ای، آموزش شنیداری-دیداری، آموزش رایانه‌یار، آموزش وب‌بنیاد، یادگیری الکترونیکی 1 و یادگیری الکترونیکی 2 (اجتماعی). سپس به بررسی روند پژوهش‌های این حوزه پرداخته می‌شود که نتایج این بررسی نشان‌دهنده افزایش اقبال پژوهشگران به مباحث فناورانه یادگیری الکترونیکی و تلاش برای هم‌راستا نمودهای مختلف فناوری‌های اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی با آن است. یادگیری الکترونیکی به عنوان بارزترین تأثیر فناوری‌های نوین اطلاعاتی و ارتباطی بر آموزش و اثرگذاری آن بر ذهن و رفتار یادگیرندگان عصر اطلاعات، چنان مهم است که عدم سیاست‌گذاری مناسب درباره آن هم موجب عدم بهره‌برداری از مزایای کاربردی این فناوری‌ها می‌شود و هم بر هزینه‌های آینده آموزش و البته بر تشدید گسست میان شهروندان اطلاعاتی با نظام آموزشی خواهد افزود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.20080840.1399.13.1.3.3

عنوان مقاله [English]

E-Learning: Technological Transformation in Education

نویسندگان [English]

  • gholamali Montazer 1
  • Tayyebeh Gashool Darehsibi 2
1 Professor of Information Technology, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student in Information Technology, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, all aspects of human life are influenced by the advances in information and communication technologies (ICT). Education and learning are also among areas that have been greatly affected by ICT and the speed of its growth. This affectability results in the creation of a new concept, called e-learning. In this paper, we first define the basic concepts of learning. Then, describing the trajectory of the technological course of distance education, we explain the technological background of e-learning and express how ICT affects the formation of personalized intelligent learning. Evolution of distance education can be divided into six generations: correspondence education, audio-visual education, computer-assisted education, web-based education, e-learning 1, and (social) e-learning 2. Additionally, we address to the researches in e-learning through the examination of published papers in e-learning. Our investigation shows the increasing interest of researchers to technological issues of e-learning as well as attempting to match different information technology appearances to it. Scientific problems around e-learning are interesting for many researchers, and solving each of them helps to the evolution of e-learning from some aspect. E-learning, as the most sensible effect of modern information and communication technologies on education and because of its effects on the mind and behaviour of the learners, is so important that ignoring policy making on it makes it impossible to exploit the advantages of applying these technologies in education, increases the costs in future of education, and also widens the gap between education system and citizens of information era.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • E-Learning
  • Distance Education
  • Generations
  • Information Technology
  • Learner-Centered
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