شناسایی الگوهای انگیزشی کارآفرینان در راه‌اندازی کسب‌و‌کارهای دانش‌بنیان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار گروه مدیریت صنعتی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری واحد قزوین دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی

/jstp.2020.11.4.1101

چکیده

کارآفرینان بر اساس خصوصیات و توانایی‌های فردی‌شان، می‌توانند انگیزه‌های متفاوتی از راه‌اندازی کسب‌وکار داشته باشند. تصمیم به تأسیس یک شرکت جدید بر مبنای انگیزه‌های فردی و ذهنی و شرایط محیطی صورت می‌گیرد. هر چه افراد برای راه‌اندازی کسب‌وکار مصمم‌تر و با انگیزه‌تر باشند تعهد بیشتری به پروژه یا ایده کسب‌وکار داشته و در نتیجه بنگاه در آینده عملکرد موفقیت‌آمیزتری خواهد داشت. با توجه به ضرورت توسعه شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان به عنوان موتور رشد اقتصادی کشور، در این مقاله با استفاده از روش کیو، عوامل انگیزشی راه‌اندازی شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان که کارآفرینان در مورد میزان اهمیت آنها اتفاق‌نظر دارند و همچنین الگوهای متفاوت انگیزشی این کارآفرینان شناسایی شده است. ابتدا با مطالعه مقالات متعدد در پیشینه موضوع و مصاحبه با پنج پژوهشگر حوزه شناخت رفتار و انگیزش لیستی از عوامل انگیزشی کارآفرینان شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان مشتمل بر 38 عبارت تهیه و برای کارآفرینان انواع مختلف شرکت‌های دانش‌بنیان ارسال شد. تحلیل مرتب‌سازی انگیزه‌های 30 مشارکت‌کننده از راه‌اندازی شرکت دانش‌بنیان، منجر به شناسایی پنج الگوی متفاوت انگیزشی شد که عبارتند از نوع‌دوستان، کنترل‌گرایان، توفیق‌طلبان، جستجوگران فرصت و پیروی‌کنندگان. علی‌رغم الگوهای انگیزشی شناسایی‌شده، کارآفرینان در مورد مهم یا غیرمهم بودن برخی عوامل انگیزشی اتفاق‌نظر داشتند. داشتن شبکه ارتباطی مؤثر با سایر کارآفرینان، مخترعان، دانشگاهیان، تولید‌کنندگان و سرمایه‌گذاران و استفاده از تحصیلات و تحقیقات علمی و تجاری‌سازی ایده و اختراع از انگیزه‌های مهم مشترک بین مشارکت‌کنندگان بوده و از طرف دیگر داشتن روابط دوستانه و سرخورده بودن از کار قبلی انگیزه‌های کم‌اهمیتی برای همه مشارکت‌کنندگان به شمار می‌رفتند. نتایج این پژوهش به سیاست‌گذاران کشور کمک می‌کند با تمرکز بر عوامل انگیزشی مشترک و متناسب با الگوهای متفاوت ذهنی افراد، سیاست‌های مناسبی جهت نیل به اقتصاد دانش‌بنیان تدوین نموده و تمهیداتی بیاندیشند که نرخ ایجاد این گونه بنگاه‌ها و شانس موفقیت آنها افزایش یابد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Motivational Patterns of Entrepreneurs in Science-Based New Venture Creation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soheila Khishtandar
  • Masoumeh _Danesh_Shakib
Department of Industrial Management, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran
چکیده [English]

Based on different characteristics and abilities, entrepreneurs have different motivations in the process of new venture creation. This study aimed to recognize the motivational factors that science-based entrepreneurs agree on their importance and follow in new venture creation. Also, different motivational patterns of these entrepreneurs were identified. In this way, this paper applied Q-method and the results of analyzing the Q-sorts of 30 participants, lead to 5 different motivational patterns, including Altruisms, controllers, ambitious, profiteers, and followers. Despite the identified motivational patterns, entrepreneurs were unanimous in the importance of some of the motivational factors. The important factors that participants agreed on them include having an effective communication network with other entrepreneurs, inventors, academician, producers and investors, as well as applying scientific research and commercializing ideas and inventions. On the other hand, insignificant incentives for all participants include having friendly relationships and being disappointed in previous job. By focusing on common motivational factors and tailored for different mental patterns of individuals, science and technology policymakers can make appropriate policies for achieving science-based economy and consider measures to increase the rate of establishment of such firms and their chances of success.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Knowledge-Based
  • Motivation
  • Q-method
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