ارزیابی علمِ به‌سامان: برنامه فیلیپ کیچر در مردم‌سالار‌سازی سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد گروه فلسفه دانشگاه اصفهان و دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم سیاسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 دانشیار گروه فلسفه دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

به دلیل اعمال سیاست‌های متعارض با منافع شهروندان، شاهد افزایش بی‌اعتمادی به علم و فناوری در دهه‌های اخیر بوده‌ایم و در این سال‌ها همواره مردم‌سالار‌سازی سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری به عنوان یک راه‌حل این مسئله مطرح شده است. اما آیا ورود ارزش‌ها و ایده‌آل‌های مردم‌سالارانه در فرآیند فعالیت علمی بایسته است؟ و نهاد‌ها و رویه‌های علمی چگونه باید در جهت پاسداشت منافع شهروندان جامعه مردم‌سالار سامان گیرند؟ فیلیپ کیچر فیلسوف علم بریتانیایی معاصر معتقد است که فعالیت علمی در جامعه مردم‌سالار باید نسبت به ورود ارزش‌های مردم‌سالارانه گشوده باشد. وی مدعی است توانسته با طرح برنامه علم به‌سامان، سازوکاری با پشتوانه فلسفی را در جهت ارضاء هنجار فوق ارائه دهد به طوری که میان ارزش‌های مردم‌سالارانه (برابری و آزادی) و نخبه‌مدارانه فعالیت علمی (عینیت و هدف علمی) جمع کرده باشد. مقاله حاضر به تبیین و بررسی علم به‌سامان به مثابه برنامه‌ای در جهت مردم‌سالار‌سازی سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری پرداخته و در این راستا مؤلفه‌هایی چون نسبت ارزش و علم و اهمیت علمی به عنوان مهم‌ترین پایه‌های فلسفی و فهم کیچر از مردم‌سالاری به مثابه عنصر کلیدی از برنامه علم به‌سامان توضیح داده شده است. در ادامه نیز سعی شده در دو بخش با عناوین ایده‌آل علم به‌سامان و تلقی کیچر از مردم‌سالاری، ارزیابی نسبتاً جامعی از استدلال‌های شکل‌گرفته حول این مقوله ارائه شود. در نهایت استدلال شده که دلایل کیچر در دفاع از برنامه علم به‌سامان در عرصه نظری، ناموجه و نیز با گشودگی نسبت به گونه‌ای از نخبه‌گرایی، در عرصه عمل ناکام است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Well-Ordered Science: Philip kitcher's Program for Democratizing of Science and Technology Policy-Making

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amirhossein Emami Koupaei 1
  • Amirehsan Karbasi zade 2
1 - M.Phil. Department of Philosophy, University of Isfahan & M.Phil. Student, Department of Political Science, Shahid Beheshti University (SBU), Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy,University of Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In recent decades, distrust of science and technology has increased due to the application of policies that conflict with the interests of citizens. Democratizing of Science and Technology Policy-Making has always been a solution in these years. Yet, it is plausible to ask whether it is necessary to incorporate democratic values and ideals into the process of scientific activity. And how should scientific institutions and procedures be organized to protect the interests of citizens in a democratic society? Philip Kitcher, a contemporary British philosopher of science, believes that scientific activity in a democratic society must be open to the inclusion of democratic values. He claims that he has been able to put forward a mechanism- with a philosophical basis- for satisfying the aforementioned norms by designing a well-ordered science program, so making a compromise between scientific activity elitist values -Objectivity and Scientific goal- and democratic values –freedom and equality. This paper aims to explain and examine well-ordered science as a program for democratizing science and technology policy-making. In this regard, components such as the relation of value and science and scientific Significance, as the most important philosophical foundations, and Kitcher’s understanding of democracy as a key element of his program have been thoroughly explained. And in two parts, ideal of well-ordered science and kitcher's understanding of democracy, a relatively comprehensive assessment of the arguments put forward for this project has been offered. Finally, it is argued that Kitcher's argument for defending the program of well-ordered science, on the one hand, is theoretically unjustifiable and on the other hand, by the introduction of some kind of elitism, is practically unsuccessful.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Philip Kitcher
  • Well-Ordered Science
  • Scientific Significance
  • Democratizing of Science and Technology Policy-Making
  • Elitism
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