آمیزه‌‌های سیاستی برای علم، فناوری و نوآوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری مدیریت فناوری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران

2 پژوهشگر اندیشکده صنعت و فناوری، تهران

چکیده

پیچیدگی مسائل در نظام نوآوری از یک سو و افزایش تنوع ابزارهای سیاستی از سوی دیگر، موجب شده که تمرکز سیاست‌گذاران از یافتن بهترین ابزارهای سیاستی به توسعه سبدی از ابزارها که در کنار یکدیگر و در ترکیب با هم بیشترین تأثیر مثبت ممکن بر هدف سیاستی را داشته باشند تغییر کند. این تغییر تمرکز ذیل مفهوم «آمیزه سیاستی» مطرح شده است. مفهومی که به تأثیرات متقابل و وابستگی بین ابزارهای سیاستی مختلفی که میزان تحقق اهداف سیاستی را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهند اشاره دارد. طراحی آمیزه سیاستی باید به گونه‌ای باشد که حداکثر هم‌افزایی و حداقل تأثیرات متناقض بالقوه بین ابزارهای سیاستی به منظور بیشینه‌سازی اثربخشی آمیزه رعایت شود. استخراج دقیق تأثیرات متقابل ابزارهای سیاستی در عمل به پیاده‌سازی آمیزه و انجام ارزیابی‌های حین و پس از اجرا وابسته است. به همین دلیل طراحی آمیزه‌ها فرآیندی پویا و وابسته به بازخوردهای حاصل از اجرای آنهاست. این مهم در کنار تعدد گزینه‌های موجود، لزوم استفاده از رویکردهای نظام‌مند برای طراحی آمیزه‌های سیاستی را آشکار می‌‌سازد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Policy Mixes for Science, Technology, and Innovation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Alizadeh 1
  • Farkhondeh Malekifar 2
1 Ph.D., Technology Management, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
2 Researcher, ASEF Think Tank, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The complexity of innovation system problems and the diversity of policy instruments have changed the focus of policy-makers from finding the best instruments to formulating instruments packages. The packages envelope instruments which together and in combination have the most positive impact on the policy objectives. This change has been accompanied by the "policy mix" concept which refers to the interactions and interdependencies between policy instruments influencing the level of policy goal achievement. The design of a policy mix has to maximize the synergies and minimize potential contradictions between the instruments in order to maximize the effectiveness. Examining the exact interactions between policy tools needs the implementation of the policy mix, monitoring and its ex-post evaluating. Therefore, designing a policy mix is a dynamic process and depends on the feedbacks from implementation process, which in parallel with the multiplicity of the available alternatives necessitates the application of systematic approaches to design a policy mix.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Policy Mix
  • Interactions
  • Design
  • Evaluation
  • Consistency
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