سیاست‌های نوآوری طرف تقاضا؛ با تأکید بر تدارکات عمومی حامی نوآوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشگر پژوهشکده سیاست‌گذاری علم، فناوری و صنعت دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران

2 استادیار پژوهشکده سیاست‌گذاری علم، فناوری و صنعت دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران

چکیده

سیاست‌های نوآوری به دو دسته کلی طرف تقاضا و طرف عرضه تقسیم می‌شوند. سیاست‌های نوآوری طرف تقاضا با وجود سابقه طولانی طرح اهمیت آنها، مدت‌ها از کانون توجه اندیشمندان حوزه سیاست‌گذاری نوآوری و سیاست‌گذاران به دور بوده‌اند. تقاضا از طریق چهار سازوکار بر نوآوری اثرگذار است: تغییرات در تقاضا می‌تواند منجر به تحریک نوآوری‌های تدریجی و وابسته به مسیر شود؛ حساسیت تقاضا نسبت به نوآوری‌های عرضه‌شده توسط بازار می‌تواند باعث ایجاد چرخه‌ای از تقاضاهای جدید در آینده شود؛ تقاضای کاربران می‌تواند از طریق تولید مشترک نوآوری توسط کاربران و تولیدکنندگان بر ویژگی‌های نوآوری اثر بگذارد و نهایتاً کاربران خود می‌توانند نوآوری‌های خریداری‌کرده را حسب نیازهای خاص خود اصلاح کنند. خردمایه سیاست‌گذاری نوآوری طرف تقاضا نیز به سه دسته کلی قابل تقسیم‌بندی است: رفع شکست‌های سیستمی و بازار، تحریک رشد اقتصادی و همچنین تحول در بازار به منظور تحقق اهداف اجتماعی و ملی. این سیاست‌ها در سه دسته جای می‌گیرند: سیاست‌های پشتیبان تقاضای عمومی و دولتی، سیاست‌های پشتیبان تقاضای خصوصی و نیز سیاست‌های دارای رویکرد سیستمی. دسته اول و مشخصاً سیاست «تدارکات عمومی حامی نوآوری» یکی از پرکاربردترین و مستقیم‌ترین مداخلات دولت‌ها در طرف تقاضاست. در این سیاست، دولت‌ها به دنبال اهرم نمودن تقاضای بخش عمومی و دولتی به عنوان بازار پیشگام نوآوری هستند و به جای خرید محصولات و خدمات رایج، محصولات و خدمات نوآورانه و جدیدی سفارش می‌دهند که محرک تقاضای نوآوری باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.20080840.1398.12.2.32.7

عنوان مقاله [English]

Demand-Side Innovation Policies, with an Emphasis on Public Procurement for Innovation (PPI)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Najmoddin Yazdi 1
  • Ali Maleki 2
1 Researcher, Sharif Policy Research Institute (SPRI), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 Faculty Member, Sharif Policy Research Institute (SPRI), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Innovation policies are in general categorised into demand-side and supply-side. Despite a long tradition of discussing their importance, demand-side innovation policies have been out of the focus of innovation policy scholars and policy-makers. Demand affects innovation through four mechanisms: Changes in demand can spur gradual and path-dependent innovations; Sensitivity of demand to innovations triggered from the supply-side could ultimately stimulate cycles of new demands; Demand of users can impact innovation features through cooperative production of innovation by users and producers; and Users may modify purchased innovations according to their specific needs. Rationales for demand-side policymaking could be categorised into three: Overcoming market and system failures; Spurring economic growth; and Market transformation for societal goals. In a taxonomy, these policies are classified as: Supporting public and governmental demand; Supporting private demand; and Systemic approaches. The first category and specifically the policy of Public Procurement of Innovation (PPI) are one of the most direct and used policies in the demand side. In this policy, states act as a lead market, leverage public demand and procure innovative products and services instead of routine ones to stimulate further innovation demand.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Strategic Demand-Side Innovation Policy
  • Public Procurement for Innovation (PPI)
  • Public Purchase
  • Lead Market
  • Lead Users
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