نقش سیاست‌های فناوری و نوآوری در تسهیل و تسریع فرارسی فناورانه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران

2 دکتری مدیریت فناوری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران

چکیده

فرارسی فناورانه در معنای مرسوم، به کاهش شکاف فناوری میان کشورهای عقب‌تر و کشورهای پیشرو اطلاق می‌شود که می‌تواند باعث کاهش شکاف درآمد سرانه و افزایش نرخ رشد اقتصادی گردد. سیاست‌های دولت در زمینه‌های فناوری و نوآوری نقش چشم‌گیری در فرارسی فناورانه در کشورهای در حال توسعه و دیرآیند بازی می‌کنند. این موضوع ریشه در اهمیت و ضرورت هم‌تکاملی سیاست‌ها با توسعه فناوری‌ها در بخش‌های مختلف صنعتی دارد. مطالعه و بررسی تجارب اقتصادهای نوظهور در زمینه فرارسی فناورانه نشان می‌دهد که کشورها برای رسیدن به فرارسی، ناگزیر به حرکت از سیاست‌های صنعتی و تجاری به سمت سیاست‌های فناوری و نوآوری هستند. به بیان دیگر، با ابزارهای قدیمی مبتنی بر تعرفه و نرخ ارز نمی‌توان به فرارسی فناورانه رسید و دولت در این میان نیازمند مداخله فعال‌تر با تمرکز بر توانمندسازی بنگاه‌ها و سوق دادن آنها به سمت استفاده از پنجره‌های فرصتی است که عمدتاً ناشی از تغییرات فناوری هستند. در این مقاله، پس از بررسی مفهوم فرارسی و ارائه چارچوبی مفهومی از نقش دولت در آن، تجربه صنعتی شدن کشورهای مختلف را از این زاویه بررسی خواهیم کرد. این تجربه نشان داده که در صورت عدم انسجام سیاستی و عدم توجه به پنجره فرصت‌های ناشی از تغییرات فناوری، اقدامات دولتها منجر به فرارسی فناوری در سطح بین‌المللی نخواهد شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Technology and Innovation Policy in Boosting Technological Catch-up

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ebrahim Souzanchi Kashani 1
  • Mostafa Safdari Ranjbar 2
1 Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Management and Economics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D in Technology Management, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Technological catch-up refers to the process of closing the technological gap between a latecomer and an advanced country. It is argued that this process is an antecedent for boosting economic growth. Technology and innovation policies are pivotal in the success of technological cath-up as there is a constant need for adapting policies with technical changes. The experience of successful countries demonstrate an important transition from industrial/trade policies to technology/innovation policies. It means that trade protection and currency exchange policies are not suffice for enhancing technological capabilities in the domestic industries, therefore, states have to play an active role in finding and exploiting the windows of oppurtunities mainly arise from technological disruptions. The paper tries to provide a framework for analyzing the role of government in this respect. Intriguingly, the historical record shows that the Iranian government did not adopt such a transition. Recent efforts to use technology and innovation policy tools were also brought limited success because those policies were not designed based on windows of oppurtunities.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Technological Catch-up
  • Science and technology policy
  • Trade and Industry Policy
  • Government Intervention
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