سیر تحول مفاهیم و سیاست‌های انتقال فناوری بین‌المللی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت‌علمی دانشکده مدیریت، علم و فناوری دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت کسب‌و‌کار، دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر، تهران

چکیده

اکتساب فناوری تنها از طریق تحقیق‌و‌توسعه، امکان‌پذیر و اقتصادی نبوده و از این رو انتقال فناوری به عنوان یکی از روش‌های میان‌بر برای کسب توانمندی‌های فناورانه مطرح می‌شود. مفهوم انتقال فناوری بین‌المللی به همکاری‌های فناورانه میان بنگاه‌ها در فضای بین‌المللی اطلاق می‌شود که کشورهای در حال توسعه در خلال آن به وسیله جذب، کاربرد و توسعه فناوری انتقال داده‌شده، توسعه درون‌زای فناوری و فعالیت‌های تحقیق‌وتوسعه خود را رقم می‌زنند و به این ترتیب شکاف خود با کشورهای توسعه‌یافته را کاهش می‌دهند. با توجه به اهمیت سیاست‌های کلان در قبال انتقال فناوری و اثرگذاری آن بر توسعه فناورانه کشور، در این مقاله با بررسی دیدگاه‌های رایج به مقوله انتقال فناوری بین‌المللی، به تبیین سیر تکاملی سیاست‌های این حوزه خواهیم پرداخت و نشان خواهیم داد که سیاست «جایگزینی واردات» جای خود را به سیاست «توسعه مبتنی بر صادرات» داده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Evolution of the Concepts and Policies of International Technology Transfer

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Majidpour 1
  • Fatemeh Mojiri 2
1 Assisstant Professor, Department of Management, Science & Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 MBA, Department of Management, Science & Technology, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Research and development (R&D) is not the only technology acquisition method as, in some cases, R&D is not feasible and economic. Thus, technology transfer is considered as one of the efficient and shortcut ways for acquiring technological capabilities. The concept of international technology transfer refers to the technological cooperation between firms in the international atmosphere in which developing countries are able to internalize transferred technologies through absorption, application and development of transferred technology. With respect to the importance of national policies in relation to technology transfer and its impact on technological development, this paper, by reviewing the current perspectives, explains the evolutionary trends of the international technology transfer policies. We show import substitution policy has been already replaced by export-led policy.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Policies of Technology Transfer
  • International Technology Transfer
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