سیاست‌های حمایت از شبکه‌سازی با هدف توسعه علم و فناوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیأت‌علمی پژوهشکده مطالعات فناوری، تهران

چکیده

شبکه‌های همکاری به عنوان یکی از ابزارهای کارآمد برای مدیریت بهینه منابع، انتقال دانش بین عوامل، به‌اشتراک‌گذاری دارایی‌ها و کاهش ریسک‌های توسعه در عرصه اقتصاد، کسب‌وکار و دانش شناخته شده‌اند. تجربه جهانی نشانگر آن است که در حوزه‌هایی که رشد علم، فناوری و نوآوری با سرعت زیادی صورت می‌گیرد و منابع دانش به مقدار زیادی توزیع‌شده هستند، یک بنگاه یا سازمان به تنهایی تمام قابلیت‌ها و امکانات لازم برای معرفی نوآوری‌های اساسی به بازار را ندارد. در چنین شرایطی، شبکه‌ها می‌توانند به عنوان خاستگاه نوآوری عمل کنند. گرچه شبکه‌سازی رویکرد جدیدی در دنیا نیست اما با این وجود، در چند دهه اخیر توجه به شبکه‌ها و روابط درون آنها به شدت افزایش یافته است. دو الگوی متفاوت در دنیا برای شکل‌گیری اینگونه شبکه‌ها تجربه شده که در الگوی اول، شبکه‌ها به صورت خودجوش و غیررسمی (از پائین به بالا) و در الگوی دیگر شبکه‌ها به عنوان یک ابزار سیاستی و با مداخله یک نهاد (غالباً سیاست‌گذار) دولتی به صورت یک سازمان رسمی (از بالا به پائین) ایجاد شده‌اند. در این مقاله ابتدا ضمن معرفی شبکه و کارکردهای آن، خردمایه مداخلات دولتی در ایجاد این شبکه‌ها و استفاده از آنها به عنوان یک ابزار سیاستی برای پشتیبانی و توسعه علم و فناوری مورد بررسی قرار می‌گیرد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Policies for Stimulating Networks in Science and Technology Development

نویسنده [English]

  • Reza Asadifard
Assistant Professor, Technology Studies Institute (TSI), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Collaborative networks have been acknowledged as an efficient tool for the optimized management of resources, knowledge transfer between entities, sharing of assets and reduction of development risks in the industrial, technologic, business and economic sectors. The global experience indicates that a single firm or organization does not have all the necessary capabilities and assets for introducing fundamental innovations to the market in fast-growing areas of science and technology. Under these circumstances, networks can act as the origin of innovation.
Networking is not a new approach in the world. However, over the last few decades, attention has grown considerably over networks and the relationships among agents within them. There are two patterns for establishing science and technology networks. Beside bottom-up networks created spontaneously by individuals or organizations, there is another type of collaborative networks, which governmental organizations often establish them as formal planned, top-bottom entities. These networks are formed as governmental policy tools for pursuing certain national or regional goals.
In this paper, firstly, we introduce the network concept and its functions. Then there is a discussion about the rationale of government interventions in establishing the formal S&T networks particularly in a developing country like Iran. We also elaborate on how these networks are used as policy tools for the support and development of science and technology.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Collaborative Networks
  • Science and Technology
  • Networking Costs
  • Formal Networks
  • Network Failure Risks
  • Networking Policies
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