هم‌جواری جغرافیایی: ابزاری برای حمایت از نوآوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران، تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه کاشان

چکیده

در هردو اقتصاد نئوکلاسیک و تکاملی بر اهمیت مجاورت مکانی در تسهیل فرآیند نوآوری تأکید شده است. اقتصاد نئوکلاسیک با تمرکز بر صرفه‌های تجمع مانند کاهش هزینه‌ها و صرفه مقیاس و اقتصاد تکاملی با تأکید بر مزایای هم‌جواری بنگاه‌ها مانند سرریز دانش، لزوم طراحی سیاست‌ها و ابزارهای مبتنی بر هم‌جواری را مطرح می‌کنند. در ساختارهای مبتنی بر مجاورت جغرافیایی، تیم‌ها، هسته‌های فناور، شرکت‌های نوپا و شرکت‌های صنعتی در جوار هم مستقر می‌شوند. تیم‌ها و شرکت‌های مستقر در این ساختارها، ضمن برخورداری از زیرساخت مشترک با هزینه کمتر، از هم‌افزایی ناشی از سرریز دانش و فناوری بهره‌مند می‌شوند. در این مقاله، ابتدا اهمیت هم‌جواری جغرافیایی در نوآوری از دید نظریه‌های مختلف بیان و سپس ساختارهای متنوع مبتنی بر مجاورت جغرافیایی از جمله شتاب‌دهنده، مرکز رشد، پارک علم و فناوری، شهرک علمی-تحقیقاتی، شهرک فناوری و نیز شهرک صنعتی، متناسب با مراحل دوره عمر شرکت‌ها، بررسی و مقایسه شده است. در پایان، نمونه‌ای از تجمیع همه این ساختارها در یک منطقه جغرافیایی یعنی استان اصفهان ارائه شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geographical Proximity: A tool for Supporting Innovation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Shaverdi 1
  • Behzad Soltani 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate in, Science and Technology Policy, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, School of Mechanical Engineering, Kashan University, Iran
چکیده [English]

In the neoclassical and evolutionary economics, the emphasis is placed on the importance of proximity to facilitate the innovation process. Neoclassical economics with the focus on the aggregation advantages, such as cost savings and economy of scale and the evolutionary economics with the emphasis on the benefits of firms’ proximity such as knowledge spillovers, emply the necessity of designing policies and tools based on the geographical proximity. In the geographical proximity structures, teams, technological firms, startups and industrial companies are located together. The teams and companies located in these structures, while having a joint infrastructure at a lower cost, benefit from the knowledge and technology spillovers. In this chapter, the importance of geographical proximity in innovation is presented from different theories’ perspective, and then various structures based on geographical proximity, including accelerator, incubator, science and technology park, science and technology town, technology town and industrial estate commensurate with different stages of the firms’ life cycle, are reviewed and compared. Finally, an example of aggregation of these structures in a geographical region, i.e. Isfahan province has been presented.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Innovation
  • Geographical Proximity
  • Accelerator
  • Science and Technology Park
  • Technology Town
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