نقش دانشگاه‌ها و پژوهشگاه‌ها در توسعه علم و فناوری و سیاست‌های حمایت از آنها

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار پژوهشکده مطالعات بنیادین علم و فناوری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

چکیده

از زمان تأسیس دانشگاه بولونیا در اواخر قرن 11 تا  قرن 19 میلادی، نقش دانشگاه‌ها عموماً بر محوریت کارکرد آموزش جریان داشته است. به تدریج با اهمیت یافتن سیاست علم در اوایل قرن بیستم، دانشگاه‌ها و پژوهشگاه‌ها وظیفه پژوهش را نیز عهده‌دار شدند. علاوه بر دو کارکرد محوری یادشده، کارکردهای دیگری نیز برای دانشگاه‌ها و پژوهشگاه‌ها مطرح شده که تحت عنوان مأموریت سوم شناخته می‌شوند. هم‌زمان با افزایش اهمیت سیاست فناوری و نوآوری از اواسط قرن بیستم، توسعه فناوری توسط دانشگاه‌ها از طریق سازوکارهایی همچون همکاری با صنعت و تأسیس شرکت‌های زایشی دانشگاهی مورد توجه قرار گرفت. در سال‌های اخیر با متداول شدن نگاه نظام‌مند به نوآوری و سپس نظریه نظام‌های نوآوری، نقش دانشگاه‌ها و پژوهشگاه‌ها در نوآوری و خلق ثروت نیز اهمیت بیشتری یافته است. اخیراً برخی محققان با مطرح کردن دانشگاه‌های توسعه‌گرا نقش دانشگاه‌ها و پژوهشگاه‌ها در توسعه نوآوری و کارآفرینی را فراتر از گذشته و به بیان دیگر ایفای نقش اجتماعی و اقتصادی بر اساس نیازهای جوامع پیرامونی خود دانسته‌اند. هم‌زمان با تحولات در نقش دانشگاه‌ها و پژوهشگاه‌ها، سیاست‌هایی نیز از طرف دولت‌ها برای تقویت کارکردهای آموزش، پژوهش و مأموریت سوم در کشورهای مختلف طراحی و اجرایی شده است. در این مقاله به ابعاد مختلف نقش و تأثیرگذاری دانشگاه‌ها و پژوهشگاه‌ها در نظام علم، فناوری و نوآوری و سیر تحولات آنها پرداخته و دو مطالعه موردی از فعالیت‌ها و اقدامات دو دانشگاه داخلی خصوصاً در موضوع مأموریت سوم ارائه می‌شود.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.20080840.1398.12.2.17.2

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role Universities and Research Institutes Plays in Science and Technology Development and Policies Supporting Them

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kiarash Fartash
  • Mohammad Sadegh Khayyatian Yazdi
Assistant Professor, Institute for Science and Technology Studies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The The role of universities since the inception of the Bologna University in the late 11th century until the 19th century, fulfilling education function has been the concern of universities. Gradually, the increased importance of science policy in the early 20th century, universities and research institutes became responsible for research function as well. In addition to the two mentioned principal functions, some other functions have been proposed for universities and research institutes known as the third mission. Amplified significance of technology and innovation policy since the mid-20th century led to technology development efforts by universities through mechanisms such as collaboration with industry and founding spin-offs. In recent years, with the emergence of systemic view to innovation and then innovation systems, the role of universities and research institutes has also become of more salience in innovating and creating economic profits. More recently some scholars, by coining developmental universities concept, have raised the role of universities and research institutes in promoting innovation and entrepreneurship, in other words, playing a social and economic part based on the needs of their proximal communities. Along with the changes in role of universities and research institutes, policies have been designed and implemented by governments to strengthen the functions of education, research, and the third mission in different countries. In this article, various aspects of the role and influence of universities and research institutes in the system of science, technology and innovation and the course of their evolution are discussed. Two case studies of activities, especially focused on their third mission, of two universities in Iran are presented in the last section.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • University and Research Institutes Functions
  • Role of University and Research Institute in Science and Technology Development
  • Developmental University
  • University
  • Research Institute
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