سیاست‌های علم، فناوری و نوآوری برای تقویت بوم‌سازگان نوآوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران

2 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت فناوری، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران

چکیده

گرچه مفهوم بوم‌سازگان نوآوری محبوبیت فراوانی در میان پژوهشگران، مدیران و سیاست‌گذاران پیدا کرده اما هنوز توافق‌نظر چندانی روی تعاریف و تعابیر حول آن شکل نگرفته است. با این وجود، نگاه بوم‌سازگانی با تأکیدی که بر روابط میان کنشگران نظام نوآوری و هم‌وابستگی میان آنها برای آفرینش‌ ارزش، نقش بخش خصوصی و بنگاه‌های کوچک، نقش فناوری‌های دیجیتالی، نوآوری باز و نیروهای بازار و سمت تقاضای نوآوری دارد می‌تواند مکمل مناسبی برای دیدگاه نظام نوآوری در دنیای امروز باشد و به تقویت و ترمیم نظام‌های نوآوری کمک کند. این مقاله ضمن معرفی دیدگاه‌های مختلف بوم‌سازگانی و تفاوت‌ها و شباهت‌های آنها با یکدیگر، اجزاء و مراحل چرخه عمر و همچنین سیاست‌های تقویت و ترمیم بوم‌سازگان نوآوری را بررسی می‌کند. به دلیل تأکید بر نیروهای بازار و نقش بخش خصوصی در دیدگاه بوم‌سازگانی، پژوهش‌های مربوط به بوم‌سازگان‌های نوآوری عمدتاً دیدگاهی بنگاه‌محور دارند و کمتر از دید سیاست‌گذاری به مطالعه این مبحث پرداخته‌اند. در حال حاضر چارچوب جامع و مورد توافقی برای سیاست‌های تقویت بوم‌سازگان در دست نیست و لذا این مقاله اجمالاً دیدگاه‌های مختلف نسبت به این سیاست‌ها را مرور می‌کند. از آنجا که موفقیت بوم‌سازگان‌ها به عوامل متعددی بستگی دارد این دیدگاه‌ها نسبتاً متنوع هستند و شامل مواردی چون کمک به گذار بوم‌سازگان‌ها، ایجاد چشم‌انداز مشترک، ایجاد هم‌تکاملی، ایجاد نزدیکی جغرافیایی، تشکیل بن‌سازه و ایجاد ویژگی‌های مناسب در بوم‌سازگان می‌شود. در انتهای مقاله نیز بوم‌سازگان نوآوری داروهای زیستی در ایران به عنوان یک مورد از بوم‌سازگان نوآوری معرفی شده است.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

dor 20.1001.1.20080840.1398.12.2.14.9

عنوان مقاله [English]

STI Policies to Augment Innovation Ecosystems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Elyasi 1
  • Farkhondeh Malekifar 2
1 Associate Professorm, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D Candidate, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Despite its popularity among scholars, practitioners and policymakers, there is still no consensus around the term “innovation ecosystem” and related concepts. Ecosystem approach, which focuses on relationships between innovation system players and their interdependence to co-create value, role of private sector and small firms, role of digital technologies, open innovation, and market forces and demand side of innovation, can provide a complementary approach to innovation system to help augment innovation systems.
In this paper, different ecosystem approaches are introduced and innovation ecosystem components, ecosystem life cycle phases, and policies to strengthen innovation ecosystems are reviewed. Since ecosystem literature is more focused on firm strategies than government policies, there is still no comprehensive framework for innovation ecosystem policies, so in this paper different innovation ecosystem policies are reviewed. Innovation ecosystems’ success depends on multiple factors, and different innovation ecosystem policies were introduced in literature, including supporting ecosystem transition, supporting shared vision creation, supporting co-evolution, supporting geographic proximity, supporting platform creation, and supporting desired ecosystem properties. At the end, Iran’s biopharmaceutical innovation ecosystem is introduced as a case study.
 
 
 

* Corresponding author: elyasi.atu@gmail.com

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Innovation Ecosystems
  • Business Ecosystems
  • Ecosystem Life Cycle
  • Ecosystem Policies
[1] Mercan, B., & Goktas, D. (2011). Components of innovation ecosystems: a cross-country study. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 76(16), 102-112.
[2] Smorodinskaya, N., Russell, M., Katukov, D., & Still, K. (2017). Innovation Ecosystems vs. Innovation Systems in Terms of Collaboration and Co-creation of Value. Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
[3] Moore, J. (1993). Predators and Prey: A New Ecology of Competition. Harvard Business Review, 71(3), 75-86.
[4] Moore, J. (1996). The Death of Competition - Leadership & Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems. Wily.
[5] Clark, D., & Claffy, K. (2015). Anchoring policy development around stable points: An approach to regulating the co-evolving ICT ecosystem. Telecommunications Policy, 39, 848-860.
[6] Kolloch, M., & Dellermann, D. (2018). Digital innovation in the energy industry: The impact of controversies on the evolution of innovation ecosystems. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 254-264.
[7] Ritala, P., & Almapanopoulou, A. (2017). In defense of ‘eco’ in innovation ecosystem. Technovation, 60 and 61, 39-42.
[8] Adner, R. (2006). Match your innovation strategy to your innovation ecosystem. Harvard Business Review, 84(4), 98.
[9] National Research Council. (2007). Innovation Policies for the 21st Century: Report of a Symposium. National Academies Press.
[10] Scaringella, L., & Radziwon, A. (2018). Innovation, entrepreneurial, knowledge, and business ecosystems: Old wine in new bottles?. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 59-87.
[11] Reynolds, E., & Uygun, Y. (2018). Strengthening advanced manufacturing innovation ecosystems: The case of Massachusetts. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 178-191.
[12] Oh, D. S., Phillips, F., Park, S., & Lee, E. (2016). Innovation ecosystems: A critical examination. Technovation, 54, 1-6.
[13] Russell, M., & Smorodinskaya, N. (2018). Leveraging complexity for ecosystemic innovation. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 114-131.
[14] Wessner, C. (2004). Entreoreneurship and Innovation Ecosystem Policy Lessons from United States. Discussion Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy. Max Planck Institute for Research into Economic Systems.
[15] Durst, S., & Poutanen, P. (2013). Success factors of innovation ecosystems-Initial insights from a literature review. Co-Create, 27-38.
[16] Peltoniemi, M., & Vuori, E. (2004). Business ecosystem as the new approach to complex adaptive business environments. Proceedings of eBusiness research forum, 2, 267-281.
[17] Rinkinen, S., & Harmaakorpi, V. (2017). The business ecosystem concept in innovation policy context: building a conceptual framework. Innovation: The European Journal of Social Science Research, 31(3), 333-349.
[18] Moore, J. (2006). Business ecosystems and the view from the firm. The antitrust bulletin, 51(1), 31-75.
[19] Shaw, D., & Allen, T. (2018). Studying innovation ecosystems using ecology theory. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 88-102.
[20] Iansiti, M., & Levien, R. (2004). Strategy as Ecology. Harvard Business Review, 82(3), 1-11.
[21] Surie, G. (2017). Creating the innovation ecosystem for renewable energy via social entrepreneurship: Insights from India. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 121, 184-195.
[22] de Vasconcelos Gomes, L., Facin, A., Salerno, M., & Ikenami, R. (2018). Unpacking the innovation ecosystem construct: Evolution, gaps and trends. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 30-48.
[23] Adner, R. (2017). Ecosystem as Structure: An Actionable Construct for Strategy. Journal of Management, 43(1), 39-58.
[24] Pilinkienė, V., & Mačiulis, P. (2014). Comparison of different ecosystem analogies: The main economic determinants and levels of impact. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 156, 365-370.
[25] Jackson, D. (2011). What is an innovation ecosystem? National Science Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Deborah_Jackson2/publication/266414637_What_is_an_Innovation_Ecosystem/links/551438490cf2eda0df30714f.pdf
[26] Reillon, V. (2016). Understanding innovation. European Parliamentary Research Service. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/573968/EPRS_BRI(2016)573968_EN.pdf
[27] Mazzucato, M., & Robinson, D. (2018). Co-Creating and directing Innovation Ecosystems? NASA's changing approach to public-private partnerships in low-earth orbit. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 166-177.
[28] Aarikka-Stenroos, L., & Ritala, P. (2017). Network management in the era of ecosystems: Systematic review and management framework. Industrial Marketing Management, 67, 23-36.
[29] Rabelo, R., & Bernus, P. (2015). A Holistic Model of Building Innovation Ecosystems. IFAC-PapersOnLine, 48(3), 2250-2257.
[30] Gawer, A., & Cusumano, M. (2014). Industry Platforms and Ecosystem Innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31, 417-433.
[31] Helfata, C., & Raubitschek, R. (2018). Dynamic and integrative capabilities for profiting from innovation in digital platform-based ecosystems. Research Policy, 47(8), 1391-1399.
[32] Dedehayir, O., Mäkinen, S., & Ortt, J. (2018). Roles during innovation ecosystem genesis: A literature review. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 136, 18-29.
[33] Autio, E., & Thomas, L. (2014). Innovation Ecosystems: Implications for Innovation Management? In Dodgson, M., Gann, D., & Phillips, N. The Oxford Handbook of Innovation Management.
[34] Hahn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Konrad, K., & Visscher, K. (2017). Co-creation: embedding companies’ innovation practices in innovation ecosystem dynamics. University of Twente. Retrieved from https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/steps/series/2017/working-paper-01.pdf
[35] Fukuda, K., & Watanabe, C. (2008). Japanese and US perspectives on the National Innovation Ecosystem. Technology in Society, 30, 49-63.
[36] Fukuda, K., & Watanabe, C. (2012). Innovation ecosystem for sustainable development. In Sustainable Development-Policy and Urban Development-Tourism, Life Science, Management and Environment. InTech.
[37] McKinsey Global Institute. (2016). Iran: The $1 Trillion Growth Opportunity. McKinsey & Company.
[38] Taslimi, M., Naghavi, M., Mokhtarzadeh, N., & Babaei, A. (2018). The Role of Intermediary Institutions in the Emergence of Biopharma Industry in Iran. Journal of Science & Technology Policy, 10(3), 29-44. {in Persian}.
[39] Tabatabaeian, S., Tahoori, H., Taghva, M., & Taghavi Fard, S. (2018). Analysis of innovation ecosystem of Iranian biopharmaceuticals. Journal of Technology Developement Management, 5(4), 9-45. {in Persian}.