چارچوبی برای تحلیل نظام‌مند اخلاق سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

استادیار مرکز تحقیقات سیاست علمی کشور، تهران

چکیده

اخلاق سیاست‌گذاری شاخه‌ای از اخلاق کاربردی است که با تمرکز بر فرآیند سیاست‌گذاری می‌کوشد تحلیلی از انواع چالش‌های اخلاقی درگیر در این فرآیند و شیوه‌های رفع و رجوع آن چالش‌ها به دست دهد. مسائل و موضوعات مورد بحث در پیشینه اخلاق سیاست‌گذاری به غایت متنوع و متکثرند و تاکنون چارچوبی برای انتظام‌بخشی به تکثر موجود در این حوزه پیشنهاد نشده است. مقاله حاضر ضمن مروری بر این موضوعات متکثر از طریق اتکاء بر منابع نظری حوزه سیاست‌گذاری عمومی به طرح مدلی نظام‌مند از فرآیند سیاست‌گذاری می‌پردازد و این مدل را برای انتظام‌بخشی به موضوعات و تم‌های اخلاقی مرتبط با سیاست‌گذاری (و با تمرکز بیشتر بر سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری) به کار می‌برد. چارچوب توسعه داده شده در مقاله، مسائل اخلاقی مرتبط با سیاست‌گذاری را در پنج دسته اصلی طبقه‌بندی می‌کند: مسائل اخلاقی پیش از تصمیم‌گیری، مسائل اخلاقی پس از تصمیم‌گیری، مسائل اخلاقی مرتبط با ساختارهای اقتصادی-اجتماعی-نهادی مؤثر بر سیاست‌گذاری، مسائل اخلاقی ناشی از عملکرد گروه‌های ذینفع و بالاخره مسائل اخلاقی مرتبط با ایده‌ها و چارچوب‌های هنجاری در ذهن سیاست‌گذاران.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Framework for Systematic Analysis of Ethical Issues in S&T Policy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Arash Moussavi
  • Keyvan Alasti
Assistant Professor at National Research Institute for Science Policy, Tehran Iran
چکیده [English]

The ethics of public policy is a branch of applied ethics. Having a look at policy process, it tries to provide analyses on different types of ethical challenges involved in that process and the ways that could resolve those challenges. Issues and problems discussed in the literature of the ethics of public policy are diverse and wide-ranging and a framework has not been proposed yet to systematically regulate that diversity. After providing a review on those diverse issues and themes, this paper proposes a systemic model of public policy and applies the model to regulating ethical themes and issues related to policy process. The framework developed in the paper classifies ethical problems relevant to policy into five main categories: ethical issues arising before decision-making, ethical issues arising after decision-making, ethical issues related to economic-social-institutional structures that affect policy-making, ethical problems arising from the activities of stakeholder groups, and finally, ethical issues related to ideas and normative frameworks in the minds of policy-makers.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ethics and S&T Policy
  • Ethics and Public Policy
  • Policy Process
  • Applied Ethics
  • Regulating Framework
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