راهبردهای ارتقاء زنجیره ارزش صنعت فولاد ایران از منظر نظام نوآوری

نویسندگان

1 دکترای سیاستگذاری علم و فناوری مرکز تحقیقات سیاست علمی کشور تهران

2 عضو هیأت‌علمی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

4 عضو هیئت علمی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس تهران

10.22034/jstp.2018.10.4.539552

چکیده

ارتقاء زنجیره ارزش به معنی نوآوری نسبی واحدهای عضو این زنجیره است و طبعاً نوآوری هنگامی منجر به ارتقاء می‌شود که نسبت به رقبا نرخ بالاتری داشته باشد. همچنین رقابت‌پذیری زنجیره ارزش تا حد زیادی تحت تأثیر هماهنگی و همکاری بازیگران زنجیره در جهت نوآوری است. این مقاله در پی آن است که با بررسی ارتباط کارکردهای نظام نوآوری صنعت فولاد ایران با راهبردهای ارتقاء زنجیره ارزش، پیشنهاداتی را جهت پیاده‌سازی این راهبردها از منظر نظام نوآوری ارائه دهد. بدین منظور از طریق مصاحبه با خبرگان این حوزه و تحلیل تماتیک، چارچوب اولیه استخراج و ابعاد و مؤلفه‌های آن با بهره‌گیری از پیمایش و استفاده از روش‌های آماری، اعتبارسنجی و به صورتی دقیق‌تر بررسی شد. یافته‌ها نشان داد که انواع راهبردهای ارتقاء زنجیره ارزش صنعت فولاد تحت تأثیر موانعی قرار دارد که توسط کارکردها و زیرکارکردهای نظام نوآوری این صنعت قابل رفع و اصلاح است. به عنوان نمونه کارکردهای خلق و انتشار دانش، هدایت تحقیق‌وتوسعه و تأمین و جریان دادن به منابع مهم‌ترین کارکردهایی هستند که ارتقاء محصولی و فرآیندی را تسهیل می‌نمایند و فعالیت‌های کارآفرینانه، شکل دادن بازارها و مشروعیت‌بخشی بیش از سایر کارکردها موانع ارتقاء کانالی را رفع و به صورت غیرمستقیم سایر راهبردهای ارتقاء را تسهیل می‌کنند. در پایان مقاله نیز با استفاده از تحلیل هم‌زمان ساختاری-کارکردی اهداف و پیشنهادات سیاستی ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Strategies of Iran Steel Industry Value Chain upgrading through Innovation System Perspective

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Adab 1
  • Sepehr Ghazinoory 2
  • Seyed Soroush Ghazinoori 3
  • Hamidreza Shahverdi 4
1 PhD of ST Policy National Rersearch Institute of Science Policy Tehran Iran
2 Professor of S&T Policy, Department of Information Technology Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Allame Tabatabaei University
4 Professor of ST Policy Department of Information Technology Management Tarbiat Modares University Tehran Iran
چکیده [English]

The concept of upgrading the value chain is nothing but comparative innovation; meaning only the innovations with a rate higher than that of the competitors lead to upgrading. Also, the competitiveness of the value chain is largely influenced by collaboration of the chain actors. The present article seeks to provide suggestions for application of upgrading strategies to the Iranian steel industry through the perspective of innovation system functions. In this article, through interviewing experts and employing the thematic analysis method, a primary framework was extracted and were then confirmed and corrected by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The results of the research show that various types of upgrading strategies are influenced by the barriers that can be addressed by the functions and sub-functions of the steel industry innovation system. At the end of the paper, by means of structural-functional analysis of Iran steel innovation system, policy goals and propositions are outlined.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Value Chain Upgrading
  • Innovation system
  • Functions of Innovation System
  • Steel Industry
[1] Farahani, A. F., Esfahani, A. H. (2017). Value chain: concepts, analysis and application in development and policymaking. Rozaneh. {In Persian}.

[2] Hartwich, F., & Kormawa, P. (2009). Value Chain Diagnostics for Industrial Development. Building blocks for a holistic and rapid analytical tool. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).

[3] Zamanian, G. R., & Abdi, Z. (2015). Estimating the Degree of Protection in Iran's Steel Industry. Iranian Journal of Trade Studies (IJTS), 20(77), 31-58. {In Persian}.

[4] Kalbasi, H., & Garivani, V. (2004). Determination of the degree of cost competitiveness for Iran joining to the WTO. Iranian Journal of Economic Research, 5(17), 49-70. {In Persian}.

[5] Shaverdi, M. (2018). Equivalent choice for key words of the word cluster: framework, model, paradigm, map and system. Journal of Science & Technology Policy, 10(1), 83-85. {In Persian}.

[6] Chaminade, C., & Vang, J. (2008). Globalisation of knowledge production and regional innovation policy: Supporting specialized hubs in the Bangalore software industry. Research policy, 37(10), 1684-1696.

[7] Cooke, P., & Memedovic, O. (2006). Regional innovation systems as public goods. UNIDO, Strategic Research and Economics Branch.

[8] McDermott, A., Smeaton, D. C., Sheath, W., & Dooley, A. E. (2005). A model of the New Zealand beef value chain: evaluating opportunities. In Proceedings of the Conference-New Zealand Grassland Association (Vol. 67, p. 81).

[9] UNIDO. (2011). Industrial Value chain diagnostics: an integrated tool. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.

[10] Heinze, A. S. (2017). Value Links 2.0, manual on sustainable value chain development. GIZ (The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit).

[11] Heinze, A. S. (2011). Value Links 2.0, manual on sustainable value chain development. GIZ (The Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit).

[12] Herr, M. L., & Muzira, T. J. (2009). Value chain development for decent work: a guide for development practitioners, government and private sector initiatives. International Labor Office.

[13] Jansen, M. (2017). SME Competitiveness Outlook 2017 – Close-up: The SME guide to value chains. The International Trade Centre (ITC) is the joint agency of the World Trade Organization and the United Nations.

[14] Roduner, D. (2007). Donor interventions in value chain development: Working paper for the community of practice on value chains in rural development. Swiss Center for Agricultural Extension and Rural Development (AGRIDEA). Producer: SDC, Berne, Switzerland.

[15] Dunn, E., Sebstad, J., Batzdorff, L., & Parsons, H. (2006). Lessons learned on MSE upgrading in value chains. USAID, Washington, DC.

[16] Anandajayasekeram, P., & Gebremedhin, B. (2009). Integrating innovation systems perspective and value chain analysis in agricultural research for development: Implications and challenges (Vol. 16). ILRI (aka ILCA and ILRAD).

[17] Lamprinopoulou, C., Renwick, A., Klerkx, L., Hermans, F., & Roep, D. (2014). Application of an integrated systemic framework for analysing agricultural innovation systems and informing innovation policies: Comparing the Dutch and Scottish agrifood sectors. Agricultural Systems, 129, 40-54.

[18] Ghazinoory, S., & Riahi, P. (2011). Introduction to Innovation Systems. Academic publishing center(IPU). {In Persian}.

[19] Faghihi, A. H., & Salimi, S. B. (2009). A Study on Sectoral Innovation System: A Focus on Relations between Institutions, Knowledge Interactions and Functions. Iranian Journal Of Management Sciences, 4(13), 1-25.

[20] Mohammadi, M., Tabatabaian, S. H., Elyasi, M., & Roshani, S. (2013). Formation of emerging technological innovation system in Iran; Case of nanotechnology sector. Journal of Science & Technology Policy, 5(4), 19-32. {In Persian}.

[21] Bergek, A., Jacobsson, S., Hekkert, M., & Smith, K. (2010). Functionality of innovation systems as a rationale for and guide to innovation policy, The Theory and Practice of Innovation Policy. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 117-146.

[22] Bergek, A., Jacobssion, S., Carlsson, B., Lindmark, S., & Rickne, A. (2005). Analyzing the dynamics and funcationality of sectoral innovation systems–a manual. DRUID conference.

[23] Hekkert, M. P., Suurs, R. A., Negro, S. O., Kuhlmann, S., & Smits, R. E. (2007). Functions of innovation systems: A new approach for analysing technological change. Technological forecasting and social change, 74(4), 413-432.

[24] Bagheri Moghaddam, N., Mousavi Dorche, S. M., Nasiri, M., & Moalemi, E. (2016). Motors of Innovation: A Novel Approach for Analyzing Technological Innovation Systems. National Research Institute for Science Policy (NRISP). {In Persian}.

[25] Amirinia, H. R., Bagheri Moghaddam, N., Tabatabaeian, S. H., & Mohamadpour, S. M. (2016). Functions of Technological Innovation System for Fuel Cell technology in Iran. Public policy, 2(2), 51-71. {In Persian}.

[26] Wieczorek, A. J., & Hekkert, M. P. (2012). Systemic instruments for systemic innovation problems: A framework for policy makers and innovation scholars. Science and Public Policy, 39(1), 74-87.

[27] Ranjbar, H., Haghdoost, A., Salsali, M., Khoshdel, A., Soleimani, M., & Bahrami, N. (2012). Sampling in qualitative research: A Guide for beginning. Ann Mil Health Sci Res, 10(3), 238-250. {In Persian}.

[28] Edquist, C. (1999). Innovation policy: A systemic approach. Tema, Univ.

[29] McCarthy, S. (2008). Group, Associations and other Horizontal Linkages. Briefing Paper. ACDI/VOCA, USAID.