بنگاه‌های «پُررشد» و تأثیر آنها بر اشتغال در ایران

نویسندگان

1 دکتری سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری؛ وزارت تعاون، کار و رفاه اجتماعی

2 دکتری سیاستگذاری علم و فناوری وزارت تعاون کار و رفاه اجتماعیکارشناسارشد کارآفرینی وزارت تعاون کار و رفاه اجتماعی

3 کارشناس ارشد کارآفرینی وزارت تعاون کار و رفاه اجتماعی

10.22034/jstp.2018.10.2.539485

چکیده

علی‌رغم اینکه بنگاه‌های پُررشد حجم بسیار اندکی از بنگاه‌ها را در سطح جهان به خود اختصاص داده‌اند مطالعات تجربی حوزه کارآفرینی و کسب‌وکار، سهم قابل توجهی از ایجاد اشتغال جدید را برای آنها متصور است و آنها را محرک ارتقاء بهره‌وری، نوآوری و نفوذ در بازارهای بین‌المللی می‌داند. این در حالی است که تا به حال مطالعه‌ای جامع در مورد بنگاه‌های پُررشد و ویژگی‌ها و تأثیرات آنها بر اقتصاد ایران انجام نگرفته است. این مطالعه با استفاده از داده‌های تمامی کارگاه‌های تحت پوشش بیمه تأمین اجتماعی طی دو دوره چهار ساله، ایجاد اشتغال توسط بنگاه‌های پُررشد بخش خصوصی و تعاونی‌ها را مورد بررسی قرار داده و ضمن ارائه تصویری کلی از آنها، بستری جهت مطالعات عمیق‌تر و درک دلایل موفقیت و شکست بنگاه‌های مذکور فراهم آورده است. با وجود اینکه سهم بنگاه‌های پُررشد در ایران برابر 53/0 درصد کل بنگاه‌ها است اما آنها نزدیک به 38 درصد خالص اشتغال جدید را به وجود آورده‌اند. این بنگاه‌ها همچنین به صورتی کاملاً نامتوازن در کل کشور و در رشته‌های مختلف فعالیت توزیع شده‌اند. عدم توازن مکانی بنگاه‌های پُررشد نشان از عدم دسترسی برابر به فرصت‌های رشد کارآفرینانه در نقاط مختلف کشور داشته و لازم است سیاست‌های آگاهی‌بخشی، شفافیت و دسترسی عادلانه به فرصت‌ها در سطح ملی صورت‌بندی و پیاده‌سازی شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

High Growth Firms and their Impact on Employment in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Parisa Riahi 1
  • Mohsen Ghavamipour 2
  • Alireza Shokri 3
1 PhD in Science and Technology Policy Ministry of cooperatives Labour and Social Welfare Tehran Iran
2 PhD in Science and Technology Policy Ministry of cooperatives Labour and Social Welfare Tehran IranMA in Entrepreneurship Ministry of cooperatives Labour and Social Welfare Tehran Iran
3 MA in Entrepreneurship Ministry of cooperatives Labour and Social Welfare Tehran Iran
چکیده [English]

Despite the fact that high growth firms comprise a low percentage of all the firms globally, experimental studies in business and entrepreneurship designate a considerable share of net new jobs for them, deeming them as initiatives of boosting productivity, innovation and penetrating global markets. However, no comprehensive study has yet been conducted on Iranian high growth firms and their role on the nation’s economy. Hence, the present study, using all Iranian Social Security Organization data during two four-year-period, investigates the jobs created by high growth firms in private sectors and cooperative firms. While highlighting the importance of the subject, the study paints a big picture of such firms and delivers a context for deeper studies and comprehension of success and demise of them. As high grows firms encompass 0.53 percent of businesses in Iran, they constitute approximately 38 percent of all the newly created jobs that are distributed unequally across the country. The unfair geographical distribution of such firms convey lack of equal access to entrepreneurial opportunities in the country and calls for implementing enlightening policies and configuration of transparency and fair access to opportunities on a nation-wide scale.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship
  • High Growth Firms
  • Employment
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