بررسی تأثیر سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی بر سرریز فناوری به شرکت‌های سرمایه‌پذیر ایرانی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات

2 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، و احد علوم و تحقیقات

3 موسسه مطالعات و پژوهش های بازرگانی

10.22034/jstp.2018.10.2.539483

چکیده

سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی (FDI) از طرق مختلفی همچون فراهم آوردن بازارها و کانال‌های بازاریابی جدید، منابع ارزان‌تر، فناوری‌ها، محصولات، مهارت‌ها و روش‌های نوین تأمین مالی، تأثیرات مهمی بر کسب‌وکارها در سطح جهانی می‌گذارد. یکی از مهم‌ترین این آثار برای کشورهای میزبان می‌تواند سرریز فناوری از شرکت‌های بزرگ بین‌المللی به بنگاه‌های محلی باشد که ایران نیز به عنوان یک کشور در حال توسعه در 150 سال گذشته با این پدیده روبرو بوده است. با این حال در کشور، پژوهش‌های اندکی درباره نقش سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی در سرریز فناوری انجام شده که مقاله حاضر برای پُرکردن بخشی از این خلاء به بررسی اثر میزان توانمندی‌های فناورانه شرکت‌های سرمایه‌پذیر بر ارتباط میان جذب سرمایه‌گذاری خارجی و فعال شدن کانال‌های سرریز فناوری (کانال‌های تقلید به واسطه مشاهده، آموزش، پیوند با تأمین‌کنندگان محلی، همکاری فناورانه با بنگاه‌های داخلی و جابجایی کارکنان) پرداخته است. به این منظور، مطالعه‌ای میدانی (از طریق مصاحبه و پرسشنامه) بر روی 100 شرکت خارجی سرمایه‌گذار در ایران در بازه زمانی سال‌های 1391 و 1392 صورت گرفته است. نتایج نشان داده‌اند که سرمایه‌گذاری مستقیم خارجی در ایران به صورت مستقیم تأثیری بر فعال شدن کانال‌های سرریز نداشته لیکن افزایش توانمندی‌های فناورانه شرکت‌های سرمایه‌پذیر به عنوان یک متغیر مداخله‌گر منجر به فعال شدن دو کانال سرریز یعنی تقلید به واسطه مشاهده و آموزش شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on Technology Spillovers to Subsidiaries in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Salim 1
  • Mohamad Reza Razavi 1
  • Reza Radfar 1
  • Farhad Ghaffari 2
  • Masoud Afshari-Mofrad 3
1 Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
2 Islamic Azad University, Science & Research Branch, Tehran, Iran
3 Institute for Trade Studies and Research, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a significant role in global business by providing new markets and marketing channels, cheaper resources, access to new technologies, products, skills and financing. One of the most important aspects of FDI for a host country is technology spillover trough which domestic firms gain access to new technologies from international enterprises. Iran, as a developing country, has had some form of engagement with foreign capital for more than 150 years. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on the role of FDI in technology spillover in Iran. This study investigates the effect of technological capabilities of foreign subsidiaries on the relationship between FDI and technology spillover channels including demonstration effect, training effect, collaboration effect, linkage effect and worker turnover. A questionnaire was completed by 100 subsidiary units based in Iran. The sample consists of all foreign subsidiaries active in different industry or service sections all over the country. The results of running logistic regression model on data from questionnaires showed that FDI could not affect spillover channels directly. Yet, the results proved that technological capabilities of subsidiary units, as mediating players, have a positive influence on two spillover channels namely demonstration effect and training effect.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)
  • Technological capabilities
  • Technology Spillover Channels
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