عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
This paper contributes to the appraisal of the most important sociological approach about the nature of scientific knowledge. The classic sociologists of science have presented a “rational” approach about scientific knowledge. According to this “rational” or “standard” approach, science is a rational, common, asocial phenomen, that is without effect from social and cultural interests. New sociological views based on “relative (cultural) epistemology” consider a cultural and scientific nature for scientific knowledge. Then, the idiom of “scientific knowledge” as “mirror of nature and reality” passed over and standard view went in doubt. New sociologists of science with slogan “science as culture” suggest that scientific knowledge is always part of culture and can't be imagine any status for it out of culture. On the other hand, science as a social and contingent practice doesn’t have certain base in reality and it must be considered as a compeletly social-cultural activity, that has basic connection with values and social-cultural ideologies. The theorisians of “sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK)” and followers of social-political movements that criticize science, are some of the most important represent of this cultural approach that we describe their theories. At the end, cultural approach will be criticized.